Utilization of Milkfish (Chanos sp) Bones for Reducing Lead (Pb) Contamination


  • Meicin Hikmah Istiqomah
  • Ida Munfarida
  • Sarita Oktorina


Background: Good water quality is essential to meet all basic human needs. In Indonesia, water needs are met through both piped and non-piped sources, including shallow wells, groundwater, and existing springs. However, the presence of heavy metals in source water presents a significant challenge for water treatment. One effective water treatment technology is the use of biofilters, which can be made using discarded milkfish bones.

Methods: This study employs an experimental approach utilizing a biofilter reactor within a batch system, with a reactor volume of 1.5 liters. The experiment investigated contact times of 22 hours, 24 hours, and 26 hours, utilizing a combination of milkfish bone masses of 10 grams, 20 grams, and 30 grams, supplemented with the addition of 5 grams of zeolite. Lead (Pb) concentration was analyzed in the laboratory of PDAM Surya Sembada, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Results: The results indicated that the optimum removal efficiency of lead (Pb) was 66%, achieved with a contact time of 22 hours and a fish bone mass of 20 grams. Statistical analysis using a simple linear regression test revealed that contact time significantly influences the reduction of lead (Pb).

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that discarded milkfish bones can be effectively utilized as a biofilter to reduce the concentration of the heavy metal lead (Pb) in water. This research not only provides a solution for repurposing milkfish bone waste, which is typically not consumed, but also offers a sustainable method for mitigating heavy metal contamination in aquatic environments.