International Journal of Research https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr <div>International Journal of Research (IJR) with ISSN 2348-6848 (Online) and 2348-795X (Print) is an international peer reviewed, internationally refereed, online, open-access journal published monthly. International Journal of Research (IJR) represents a revolution in scholarly journal publishing platform. A pioneering effort in liberal, open access publishing with fast and high quality peer review that brings journal publishing to the doorstep of every researcher and student. We believe that quality information should be free and accessible universally in this day and age. The ideology of an open-access journal is in being free for all and IJR will be free for all to read and share.</div> <div>Send papers to <strong>ijr@ijrjournal.com</strong></div> <div><strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="homepageImage"><img src="https://journals.pen2print.org/public/journals/1/homepageImage_en_US.png" alt="Journal Homepage Image" width="158" height="106" /></div> <strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="additionalHomeContent"> <p>IJR takes special care to publish your research paper/article without any delay. Our journal aims to bring out the latent research talent and the professional work done by Scientists, Engineers, Architects, Planners, Practitioners, Administrators, Scholars, Graduate and Post Graduate students across all fields. This journal welcomes the submission of your research papers that meet our submission guidelines and the general criteria of significance and excellence in the field of Engineering, Science and Humanities. Submitted articles are peer reviewed by our panel of experts from various fields. All submitted papers are double-checked for plagiarized content. Please note that all submissions need to be previously unpublished.</p> </div> </div> Edupedia Publications Pvt Ltd en-US International Journal of Research 2348-795X Reviews and Documentary Research Methods in a Scientific Article: Brief Reports. https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/659 <p><em>There are differences between a literature review and documentary research. The etymological concept of both has a different vision. Although the structure of both is well demarcated, review articles can have a generic narrative. Documentary research must always maintain a critical stance, which allows the results of original research to be accredited. The purpose of this brief report is to present relevant aspects of scientific positions, the review and the documentary research.</em></p> Dr Wilfredo Molina Wills Copyright (c) 2022 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 9 9 1 6 FSK Demodulation in Wireless Charging Technology https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/660 <p>Wireless charging is a technology that eliminates the need for physical wire connections to charge portable electronics like cell phones, earbuds, and accessories. The Wireless Power Consortium is an international group that supports wireless charging. In-band communication is used by the transmitter and receiver in wireless charging. AM modulation will be used by the receiver to communicate with the transmitter, and FSK modulation will be used by the transmitter to communicate with the receiver. Communication in wireless charging technology is half-duplex type.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; To decode the data that the transmitter transmits, the receiver must implement FSK Demodulation. Due to the extremely small time difference between the carrier and modulator signals, standard FSK demodulation techniques using PPL-based or Filter-based methods will not work. In the document, FSK demodulation method is developed which can decode the data. It uses a sampler to output a sampled signal that has been through a low pass filter after sampling the FSK signal. This is sent to a device that can detect frequency shifts, the frequency shift detector.</p> Gonugunta Harshavardhan Reddy T. Praveen Kumar M Dinesh Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 9 9 7 13 REALIZATION OF FREQUENCY HOPPING SPREAD SPECTRUM IN HIGH-SPEED WIRELESS COMMUNICATION https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/661 <p>The primary goal of designing a digital communication system is to receive data that is identical to the data given by the transmitter. Military communications have frequently employed frequency hopping devices to guard against enemy jamming, interception, and detection. In conventional frequency hopping (FH) systems, the transmitter's pseudo-random code sequence determines the hopping frequency selection, and the receiver responds in precise synchrony with the transmitter's hopping pattern. This study proposes a novel message-driven frequency hopping (MDFH) system to address the ever-increasing demand on information capacity and lessen the strain of synchronization. The hopping frequency selection process may be made to incorporate some information, which can considerably increase the spectral efficiency of the FH system. To show the suggested scheme's higher performance and improved security characteristics, quantitative analysis is performed.</p> B Rajesh Dr. P. Shanmuga Sundaram N. Vigneshwaran Copyright (c) 2022 2022-09-02 2022-09-02 9 9 14 25 IMPLEMENTATION OF AREA OPTIMIZED REVERSIBLE LOGIC BASED ADAPTIVE RECURSIVE KARATSUBA https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/662 <p>Nowadays, efficient binary multiplication is required by computationally intensive applications like DSP, image processing, floating point processors, and communication technologies. This block often consumes the most power and time. In order to cut down on time, this study suggests an effective architecture for unsigned binary multiplication. A 1616-bit multiplier based on the Vedic Karatsuba algorithm has been created. It is optimized utilizing a square-root carry-select-adder, reversible logic, and an adaptive and recursive technique. Verilog was used to code the designs, while Xilinx was used to synthesis them.</p> M. Sivaprakash V. Sarvanan M. Thangavel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-09-03 2022-09-03 9 9 26 37 TURBO ENCODER MODULE FOR IN VEHICLE SYSTEM https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/663 <p>This article investigates the design and implementation of the Turbo encoder as an integrated module in the in-vehicle system (IVS) chip. The Turbo encoder module was created using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). For the encoding strategy, both serial and parallel computations are investigated. The two design strategies are discussed and argued. It is shown that by creating a parallel calculation technique employing a carry increment adder, Both chip size and processing speed have been increased. Reduced area enhances the application of reasoning. Using Xilinx tools, the Turbo encoder module was designed, simulated, and synthesized. Xilinx's Vertex Low Power is employed. The Turbo encoder module and IVS chip are intended to form a single programmable device.</p> Muthu Shabarish K S. Veerakumar T. Devika Copyright (c) 2022 2022-09-03 2022-09-03 9 9 38 49 Effect of information and communication technology (ICT) on performance of micro, small and medium enterprises https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/664 <p><em>Information and Communications Technology plays a central role in the economic, social and political life of every nation. Hence, this study examines the role of information and communication technology on the performance of micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in FCT, Abuja. Participants were MSMEs owners who have spent a minimum of three years in operation. </em><em>A total of 367 questionnaires were personally distributed to the participants but only 325 were returned out of which 300 copies were considered valid for analysis.</em><em> The statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was employed for data analysis. The study found </em><em>that there is a positive and significant relationship between e-business platforms and performance of MSMEs. These platforms help MSMEs to reach a wider coverage of customers in the comfort of their homes. Also, statistical result demonstrates a positive relationship between access to internet facilities and performance of MSMEs. It implies that through internet facilities, MSMEs can operate unhindered, even during pandemics. Similarly, results indicate that information and communication technology management enhances MSMEs performance. It implies that the more MSMEs embrace ICT, the better their performance would be</em><em>. Also, statistical results demonstrate</em><em> a positive and significant relationship between effective information system and MSMEs performance. The result suggests that effective information management enhances MSMEs performance. </em><em>Therefore, this study recommends </em><em>that Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN) and Abuja Enterprises Agency should formulate workable strategies that will encourage MSMEs owners/managers to easily embrace ICT in their business operations to enhance MSMEs performance.</em></p> Adeoti Michael Olalekan Usman Baba Umar Daramola Elizabeth Lara Copyright (c) 2022 2022-09-03 2022-09-03 9 9 50 66 The Effect of School Principal Leadership, Work Motivation, and Teacher Professionalism on the Performance of State Vocational School Teachers in the City of Depok https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/665 <p><em>This study was conducted to examine 1) the effect of principal leadership on the performance of State Vocational High School teachers in Depok City, 2) the effect of work motivation on the performance of State Vocational High School teachers in Depok City, 3) the influence of teacher professionalism on the performance of State Vocational High School teachers in Depok City 4) the effect of Simultaneous principal leadership, work motivation, and teacher professionalism on the performance of State Vocational High School teachers in Depok City. The population in this study were all 292 State Vocational School teachers in Depok City. Determination of the number of samples in this study was determined using a table for determining the number of samples developed by Arikunto with random sampling technique. The data used in this study are primary data and secondary data. The primary data collection used is a questionnaire, while the secondary data that was collected was obtained through the documentation/archives available on the website of the Education Office. Analysis of research data using multiple linear regression. Based on the results of the study 1) the principal's leadership affects the performance of State Vocational High School teachers in Depok City, 2) Work motivation does not affect the performance of State Vocational High School teachers in Depok City, 3) the influence of teacher professionalism affects the performance of State Vocational High School teachers in Depok City. 4) Simultaneously, the principal's leadership and teacher professionalism affect the performance of State Vocational High School teachers in Depok City, while work motivation does not affect the performance of State Vocational High School teachers in Depok City. Analysis of research data using multiple linear regression.</em></p> Tri Eka Wahyuni Dr. Lies Handrijaningsih Copyright (c) 2022 2022-09-03 2022-09-03 9 9 67 76 MISSION IN THE LIGHT OF FAITH, HOPE, AND LOVE IN THE LIVES OF THE CATHOLIC LAY MINISTERS IN THE NEW NORMAL https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/668 <p><em>This research paper examined the mission in light of faith, hope, and love in the lives of the catholic lay ministers in the new normal. Since the study is qualitative, it followed Giorgi's (2003) Descriptive Phenomenological Approach in describing the phenomenon from the lived experiences of the informants. Methods used included collecting recorded interviews and analysis of the gathered data. Analyses of the data revealed 102 psychological meaning units, which developed 26 concepts, from which 16 categories were formed that resulted in 4 themes and were merged to formulate one main global theme. The findings and conclusions of the study revealed that the lay ministers embodied faith, hope, and love in carrying out their mission amidst the pandemic and were considered strong virtues. The outcomes of this study may aid lay ministers in cultivating a sense of awareness as they deepen their faith, hope, and love for God, the church, and their ministry. This study also offers information to the priests in charge who commissioned the lay ministers in their respective mission and to readers to understand the informants' experiences. </em></p> Alvin J. Sumampong Rev. Fr. Gun Real L. Omega Liza Chua Rev. Fr. Michael Patan Andron C. Lagarde Copyright (c) 2022 2022-09-11 2022-09-11 9 9 77 85 A Socio-Historic Study of The Holocaust of Partition in Khushwant Singh’s Train To Pakistan https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/669 <p><em>The Partition of the Indian subcontinent into Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan in the year 1947 was a historical tragedy of unprecedented proportions which bore an indelible and irrepressible impact on Indian English writers, especially the novelists who produced a substantial body of partition-fiction (also widely referred to as ‘Partition Literature’) which deals with an array of themes and issues related to the mayhem of partition and its aftermath in contemporary India. The holocaust of partition in India was so traumatic and poignant that Jawaharlal Nehru termed it a ‘man-made Greek tragedy’. The most devastating and excruciating upshot of Indian Independence destroyed the secular fabric of India, and more markedly, the visceral communal hatred and brutal violence it engendered cost the lives of millions of people. This paper examines the themes of Partition in India in the writings of Khushwant Singh’s Train to Pakistan (1956). This paper attempts to critically analyze the phenomenon of partition not as a mere representation or recordation of a cataclysmic historical event but as a social, political and religious discourse which has irrevocably altered the destiny of a nation. </em></p> Ganapathi Rao Rangumudri Dr. P. Rajendra Karmarkar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 9 9 86 90 IMPROVING SECURITY AND RELIABILITY IN MOBILE NETWORK THROUGH VHAHA ARCHITECTURE https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/671 <p><em>Mobile network security management is different for all kinds of situations and is necessary as the growing use of internet. A home or small office may only require basic security while large businesses may require high maintenance and advanced software and hardware to prevent malicious attacks from hacking and spamming. New threats demand new strategies as the network is the door to your organization for both legitimate users and would-be attackers. For years, IT professionals have built barriers to prevent any unauthorized entry that could compromise the organization’s network. And this network security is important for every network designing, planning, building, and operating that consist of strong security policies. The Network Security is constantly evolving, due to traffic growth, usage trends and the ever changing threat landscape For example, the widespread adoption of cloud computing, social networking and bring-your-own-device (BYOD) programs are introducing new challenges and threats to an already complex network.</em></p> Kartik Goyal Aseem Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 2022-09-14 2022-09-14 9 9 91 105 A CONCEPTUAL STUDY ON THE STIMULI AROUSAL FACTOR INDUCED BY THE VIDEO ADS ON SOCIAL MEDIA PLATFORMS https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/672 <p><em>In the modern era of marketing, innovation is at its peak. Marketers and researchers continuously try to be innovative and try new techniques to communicate and persuade consumers. The techniques are very innovative and required less cost expenditure. One such technique is through short ad videos where stimuli of interest are aroused and after the arousal, the attitude to buying the product is developed in the minds of the consumers. The attitude is either positive or negative. A positive attitude change eventually leads to the intention to purchase whereas a negative attitude does not lead to the intention to purchase. Good short ad videos are effective enough to build a great perception of the product and company. Therefore, the most effective and efficient way is to design such short ad videos for electronic goods. </em></p> Aditi Srivastava Dr Ruchika Gupta Dr Shalini Singh Copyright (c) 2022 2022-09-14 2022-09-14 9 9 106 110 A PROJECT REPORT ON EMPLOYEE HEALTH, SAFETY AND WELFARE MEASURES at ASHOK LEYLAND https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/673 <p><em>Health is mostly being outlined as a state of complete physical, mental and social successfulness and not simply the absence of sickness or illness. Safety refers to the nonappearance of accidents.&nbsp; the worker welfare facilities and its impact on employee’s competency at Ashok Leyland. The idea of labour, health, safety and wellbeing are flexible and broadly differ with respect to the time, region, industry, state, social value and civilization, degree of industrialization the common socioeconomic development of the people and political ideologies existing during a particular time frame. In general, is observed that employees are not content with what receive from their employers. Unlike other large scale industrial undertakings, manufacturing industrial units in south India has fulfilled all the statutory requirements regarding labour welfare and provided a number of welfare measures voluntarily to its entire employee. To study the employee health, safety and welfare measures the study was done with the objectives of analyzing health, safety and welfare measures of the company, knowing the opinion and satisfaction level of employees about health, safety and welfare measures. The welfare measures provided will have immediate impact on the health, safety, physical and mental efficiency of the worker and contributing to the higher production. The sample size were limited to Data were analyzed using percentage analysis, based on the findings and interpretations, suitable suggestions were given to the company</em>.</p> Kumari Sravani Dr. A. Latha M. Susheela Copyright (c) 2022 2022-09-14 2022-09-14 9 9 111 130 AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ONTOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENTPRACTICES IN "LOFTY LABORATORIES”HYDERABAD. https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/674 <h3><em>This project is about total quality management (TQM) practices in one selected pharmaceutical company. In the pharmaceutical industry, systems for improving operational effectiveness and efficiency are becoming more and more popular. In this paper, developments in the industry’s improvements in operational effectiveness and efficiency have been analyzed. The empirical study reports the main findings basedonthesurveyof102employeesofselectedpharmaceutical company. These 102 employees include CEO, head of HR &amp; administration, head of accounts &amp; finance, head of marketing, production manager, quality control manager, finance manager, manager-R &amp; D, production supervisor and HR executive. The main research issues of the study are: examining relationship between employees’ involvement and TQM results, factors influencing successful implementation of TQM and measuring employees’ job satisfaction &amp; commitment. Pharmaceutical companies took control over their former low asset utilization and managed to improve the efficiency of their quality systems; however, they are still far away from having any kind of “continuous flow”, smooth production scheduling or make-to-order manufacturing. It can be said that most of the companies are still working on the effectiveness side rather than focusing on the efficiency side.</em></h3> Allam Venkata Madhuri Dr. K.Venkatasubbaiah Mrs. A. Renuka Copyright (c) 2022 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 9 9 131 144 A STUDY ON “QUALITY OF WORK LIFE” WITH REFERENCE TO HERITAGE FOODS LIMITED https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/675 <p><em>Quality of work life is a critical concept with having lots of importance in employee’s life. Quality of work life indicates a proper balance both in work and personal life which also ensure organizational productivity and employee’s job satisfaction. This research study attempted to find out the factors that have an impact and significance influence on quality of work life of employees. Quality of work life is a process in an organization which enables its members at all levels to participate actively and effectively in&nbsp; organizational environment, methods and outcomes. This study focuses on the subjective matter of QWL i.e. its key elements like job security, job performance, employee satisfaction etc. The study concluded that an appropriate organization culture, compensation policy, career growth and relative facilities can leads to a satisfied employee mindset which ensure the overall organization productivity.</em></p> Vemula Bhargavi Dr. K.Venkatasubbaiah Copyright (c) 2022 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 9 9 145 162 A STUDY ON “360 DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL” AT HALCYON TECHNOLOGIES PRIVATE LIMITED https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/676 <p><em>Appraisal. In today’s changing and volatile world organizations are continually looking for ways to improve performance, and satisfy the demands of all stakeholders. Achieving this almost inevitably involves change, which then becomes the pivotal dynamic for success. For an organization to evolve the people working within it will have to adapt; and for this to be successful, they first of all need to know what it is about the way they are currently performing that needs to change. This is where 360 degree feedback is playing a growing role in organizations through its ability to provide structured, in depth information about current Performance and what will be required of an individual in the future to enable detailed and relevant development plans to be formulated. Professionally managed, 360 degree feedback increases individual self-awareness, and as part of a strategic organizational process it can promote.</em></p> Namburi Devi Sindhuja Mrs. A. Renuka Dr. K. Venkata Subbaiah Copyright (c) 2022 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 9 9 163 180 The Effect of Work Environment and Compensation on Teacher Performance with Job Satisfaction as Variable Intervening at Smk Negeri 3 Depok https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/677 <p>The main purpose of this study&nbsp; is to analyze &nbsp;the effect of work environment variable and compensation variable on teacher performance either it was directly or indirectly by using job satisfaction variable as an intervening. And this study enables us to see which influence is more dominant between the work environment variable or the compensation variable on teacher performance. To collect Primary data researcher distributing questionnaires to 62 respondents. The data analysis phase used validity test, reliability test, normality test, multicollinearity test, heteroscedasticity test, autocorrelation test, path analysis, f test and t test. &nbsp;After analyzing primary data from the study, several conclusions were obtained &nbsp;(1) the work environment variable has a direct significant influence on the job satisfaction variable (2) the compensation variable has a direct significant influence on job satisfaction. (3) the work environment variable has a direct significant influencet on the teacher performance variable (4) the compensation variable has a direct significant influence on the teacher performance. (5) the job satisfaction variable has a direct significant influence on the teacher performance (6) The work environment variable has a significant indirect effect on teacher performance by using job satisfaction as an intervening variable (7) The compensation variable has a significant indirect effect on teacher performance by using job satisfaction as an intervening variable.</p> Arif Hidayat Dr. Herry Sussanto Copyright (c) 2022 2022-09-18 2022-09-18 9 9 181 188