International Journal of Research https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr <div>International Journal of Research (IJR) with ISSN 2348-6848 (Online) and 2348-795X (Print) is an international peer reviewed, internationally refereed, online, open-access journal published monthly. International Journal of Research (IJR) represents a revolution in scholarly journal publishing platform. A pioneering effort in liberal, open access publishing with fast and high quality peer review that brings journal publishing to the doorstep of every researcher and student. We believe that quality information should be free and accessible universally in this day and age. The ideology of an open-access journal is in being free for all and IJR will be free for all to read and share.</div> <div>Send papers to <strong>ijr@ijrjournal.com</strong></div> <div><strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="homepageImage"><img src="https://journals.pen2print.org/public/journals/1/homepageImage_en_US.png" alt="Journal Homepage Image" width="158" height="106" /></div> <strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="additionalHomeContent"> <p>IJR takes special care to publish your research paper/article without any delay. Our journal aims to bring out the latent research talent and the professional work done by Scientists, Engineers, Architects, Planners, Practitioners, Administrators, Scholars, Graduate and Post Graduate students across all fields. This journal welcomes the submission of your research papers that meet our submission guidelines and the general criteria of significance and excellence in the field of Engineering, Science and Humanities. Submitted articles are peer reviewed by our panel of experts from various fields. All submitted papers are double-checked for plagiarized content. Please note that all submissions need to be previously unpublished.</p> </div> </div> Edupedia Publications Pvt Ltd en-US International Journal of Research 2348-795X A Comparative Study On Physical Fitness Level Among Urban And Rural Students Of Kashmir https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/480 <p>The word “Physical Education”, Refers to various bodily characters such as physical strength physical development physical health and physical appearance. It refers to the body as a contrasted to mind physical education should aim to improve the mass of students and give them as much health struggle and stamina as possible to unable physical education is the process by which changes on the individual or brought about through his movement experience physical education is the some of the changes in the individual caused by experience centred in motor ability.&nbsp; The present study is a comparative study on physical fitness level among urban and rural students of Baramulla District. In this study total 60 subjects for the study in which 30 from urban and 30 rural players were randomly selected samples. The total physical fitness of rural and urban students of Baramulla District and in sit ups on comparison of t-test was 3.4. While as the physical fitness of rural and urban students of Baramulla in standing broad jump on comparison of t-test were 0.04. While as the physical fitness of rural and urban students of Baramulla in speed on comparison of t-test were 4.07. The two t-test values are significant and one t-test value is insignificant at 0.04.</p> Nazrul Islam Rajesh Kumar Kaswan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 9 5 1 7 Need To Think Before We Act React or Use Social Media https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/481 <p>Social media has strongly influenced the people and the whole world. &nbsp;It is a technology that helps the people to interact and connect by producing, sharing, and sometimes exchanging ideas, images, videos and many more over the internet in virtual communities’. From making connections through worldwide connectivity, from online businesses to digital marketing, from creating brand loyalty to awareness, social media has tremendously affected our lives. We feel blessed to have social media in our lives. But it is a fact too that for millions of years, our forefathers formed important social links and shared information through them. So at the most basic level, social media is not changing humankind so much as tapping into what we have always been. Online social networks are a new way to do an old thing. In different places in different times horses, ships, trains, and planes delivered the information to maintain and build connectivity. Then came era of Telegram, Radio, Telephone and Telecommunication satellites to quicken the pace of communication. We always have been linked to others. What is different about the present scenario of social media is that now we have the ability to connect to vastly more people over greater distance than ever before more immediately and more instantaneously. Whether this will enhance or debase our humanity in the long run is an open question. Nobody can deny the fact that using social media excessively can cause disastrous issues, which can have adverse impact on our lives.</p> Madhu Bala Amit Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 9 5 8 14 Conservation of Biological Diversity in India: Role of Judiciary https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/482 <p><em>Environment Protection and Conservation of Biological Diversity has become not only a matter of national importance but of global concern too.. It is now a well recognized fact that without a clean environment the very continuance of humankind is in peril. Diminishing environmental quality has been shown by surging pollution levels, loss of vegetative cover and Biological Diversity, imprudent concentration of hazardous chemicals in the visible atmosphere and food chains, increasing perils of environmental mishaps and warnings to associated life and life support systems. This has brought the curiosity of entire global community which forced them to preserve, safeguard and intensify their efforts in boosting the environmental quality. Judiciary is only an alarm bell and not a timekeeper. So how could the judiciary remain a mute onlooker when the matter has gained such a high relevance and become a subject of circumspection and judicial cognizance. </em></p> Prof.(Dr.) Sudhir Kumar Indra Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 9 5 15 24 E-Commerce in India: Growth and Trends https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/483 <p>E-commerce one of the highest growing business, with India having great market potential for investments.&nbsp; There has been huge surge in investment since last year and more is accepted in coming years. The rapid growth of mobile and internet users has facilitated e-commerce business in both urban and rural cities. With an online population of 500 million in 2017, India has one of the fastest growing internet populations in the world. A compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 13 percent will take the number of online users to 720 million, close to where China is currently. The CAGR of the Indian online user growth is nearly four times that of global rate. The Indian e-commerce has seen a steady growth over the years from 2014 and is currently pegged at $53 billion. With a growth of 25 percent , the Indian e-commerce industry is expected to cross the $100 billion mark by 2020 .India has an internet users base of about 475 million as of July 2018, about 40% of the population. Despite being the second largest user base in world, only behind China (650million, 48% of population), the penetration of ecommerce is low compared to markets like the United states (266 million, 84%), or France (54 M, 81%), but is growing at an unprecedented rate , adding around 6 million new entrants every month. The industry consensus is that growth is at an inflection point. In India, cash on delivery is the most preferred payment method, accumulating 75% of the e-retail activities. Demand for international consumer products is growing much faster than in-country supply from authorised distributors and e-commerce offerings. The present study makes use of secondary data. The methodology used is collection of data from various journals, published books, and research studies, research articles, magazines and newspapers along with internet.</p> <p>Finally, it has been concluded that ecommerce will result in high economic development and there will be an emergence of a more innovative and advanced technology.&nbsp;</p> Dr. Sindhuja Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 9 5 25 42 TOXIC IMPACT OF PLASTIC WASTES ON MARINE LIFE OF WOJI AND NEW CALABAR RIVERS https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/484 <p><em>Plastics are one of the most, widely, used materials in the world that, are broadly integrated into the daily lifestyle of people since they are used in almost all product areas. This study examined the resistivity and impact assessment of plastic wastes in Woji and New Calabar River. The objectives were to determine the physico-chemical properties of plastics; physico-chemical properties of water; toxic impact of plastic wastes on the aquatic life and assess the resistivity of different plastic wastes along the Woji and New Calabar Rivers. Standard Analytical Methods were used. Findings showed that the major type of plastic found in the study area (New Calabar and Woji Rivers) were Plastic bags; there is significant difference in the physical properties of plastics at the New Calabar and Woji River; most plastics collected from the Woji axis were combustible; No fish was found in the Woji River which was linked to the high level of industrial wastes in the River; Water quality parameters of the New Calabar River such as turbidity, conductivity, salinity, TDS, DO, BOD<sub>5</sub>, Nitrate and Phosphate varied significantly (p&lt;0.05) when compared to the water quality parameters of Woji River; major impact of plastic wastes in this study were death, perforated gut, biochemical/cellular death and increased population size; measures of stopping plastic waste disposal with respect to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 14 includes prevention of plastic littering, improving waste collection, handling transfer stations and proper transportation, improve final disposal site, introduce plastic waste separation at source and increase plastic waste recovery and recycling. The study concludes that plastic wastes obtained from the study area are characterized by high resistivity values which is as a result of the nature of plastics found. It is therefore recommended amongst others that enforcement of actions should be in place to reduce illegal dumping and open burning of plastic waste at disposal sites.</em></p> 1Manna Emmanuel Harris Dr. Bolaji Bernard Babatunde Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 9 5 43 74 A Study of Problem Solving Ability Among High and Low Achiever Boys in the Subject of Mathematics https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/487 <p><em>Problem solving is an individual phenomenon and involves the exercise of cognitive abilities of a high order and continuous and persistent struggling on the conscious as well unconscious levels. It is the ability to think and reason on given levels of complexity. This study aims to quantitatively assess the problem solving ability among high and low achiever boys in the subject of mathematics. Total of 164 students boys from 6 different Kendriya Vidyalaya schools of Jammu district were taken for the study. A standardised tool i.e., Garg's Problem Solving Ability Test was used to collect the data and find out the achievement of the students. Q1 and Q3 was computed for the categorization of the data. Bartlett’s test and ANOVA is employed for the analysis of data. The findings of the study shows that the high achiever boys have better problem solving ability than the low achiever boys.</em></p> Suman Pooja Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 9 5 75 106 Regional Disparities in Contemporary India: Concerns and Policies for Development https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/488 <p><em>India has had a glorious past.&nbsp; Our cultural heritage is comparable to that of China or Egypt.&nbsp; We had great kings and kingdoms.&nbsp; Half of the major world religions had their origin in India.&nbsp; We had produced great thinkers and philosophers who contributed to several branches of knowledge. But most of our history before 1500 AD is in oral traditions.&nbsp; Indians, by and large, were not good at record keeping.&nbsp; This is especially true about hard facts and data relating to various aspects of life.&nbsp; Even for the period 1500 to 1750 AD data are rudimentary.&nbsp; Regional disparities are an alarming issue in India, and it has been widening in spite of various policy initiatives by the government to develop backward areas. The fruit of high growth have not been distributed fairly across India's different regions and have given rise to the threat of regional inequality. Disparities in social and economic development, employment, and infrastructure amenities across the regions and within regions have been a major challenge to policy makers and economists. This paper is an attempt to understand the recent picture of regional imbalance in India across its states. The paper tries to analyze the existing regional disparity in India in terms of macroeconomic aggregates, social and economic infrastructure, and human development. The paper also examines the various policy initiatives taken by the government of India to achieve the regional balance in development.</em></p> Tariq Ahmad Sheikh Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 9 5 107 116 Identification of the Strategies for Transformation Funding and Start-Up Support for Family Farming in Delta State, Nigeria https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/489 <p><em>Family farming dominates agriculture in Nigeria ensuring Food and Nutrition Security (FNS) and providing employment to millions of people. Family farms are also essential in safeguarding agro-biodiversity and sustaining communities and cultures. However, family farming faces numerous challenges that make their productivity very low. There is need to revamp family farming so that the Farmers will increase their productivity, competitiveness and contribute greatly not only to addressing FNS challenges in the country but also sustainable national economic growth. The study made use of questionnaire using the 4-point likert scaling method which were analysed using the mean and ANOVA/F-Test statistics at .05 level of significance. Among the major findings were that family farmers were facing daunting challenges which includes climate change and global warming;&nbsp; insecurity/terrorism; limited access to finance; poor marketing; processing and storage facilities etc.&nbsp; Types of start-up support and assistance needed by farmers include; better technologies for producing and distributing food; Human Capacity Development (HCD) on the Most Impactful Practice (MIP) ; know-how and where to market package and brand agro products. Several sources of funds were available to the farmers both local sources and international agencies. Major strategies for transformation of Nigerian agriculture include: climate-start/resilient agricultural practices; subsidisation of inputs; investment in technology to drive mechanization etc. The study made some recommendations to help transform Nigerian agriculture which include that government should help farmers adopt the latest technology to increase their productivity; industrialisation can make a transformational difference; youth potentials and energy should be properly harnessed among others. </em></p> Ojiako, Edith Obiageli Uzoka, Iwalewa Omikhekpe Olaroye, Ebhodaghe Roseline Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 9 5 117 142 Comparison of the Light Source Between the Wide and Narrow Bands of the Experimental Results of Free Optical Space https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/490 <p><em>&nbsp;&nbsp; In this paper, the experimental results of free-space optical communication between broadband and narrowband light source are compared. Verifying the feasibility of broad-spectrum FSO communication link through</em></p> <p><em>atmospheric turbulence can be achieved by reducing the inter-symbol interference caused by excessive noise with addition of adaptive equalizer.a free-space optical (FSO) communication system with supercontinuum source generated by dispersion shift fiber (DSF) from pulsed light modulated by optical switches is designed and constructed. In addition, </em></p> <p><em>The experimental results </em><em>show that the super continuum can be used as the optical signal carrier, and the signal can be wirelessly transmitted under the space atmospheric channel condition.</em></p> Mohamed Mansour Shukra Alsanossi M. Aboghrara Ahmed Imsaeri Omar Imsaeri Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-06 2022-05-06 9 5 143 146 Effect of Audit Fees on Audit Quality of Quoted Industrial Goods Firms in Nigeria https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/491 <p><em>This study </em><em>examined the effect of audit fees on audit quality of quoted industrial goods firms in Nigeria. Ex- Post Facto research design was adopted. A sample of thirteen quoted industrial goods firms was used from sixteen quoted industrial goods firms in Nigeria. Data were extracted from annual reports and accounts of these sampled firms in Nigeria. Descriptive analysis was employed to analyze the data and tested with regression analysis via e-view 9.0. The result revealed that audit fees have a positive and significant effect on audit quality. The study therefore recommended that </em><em>based on the audit fee variable's consistency in retaining significance across the model. If possible, a baseline for a suitable typical audit charge should be established based on the company's size (or subsidiaries.</em></p> Okerekeoti, Chinedu U. Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-06 2022-05-06 9 5 147 157 Land use Change Detection: A Critical Analysis of District Pulwama https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/492 <p><em>Change detection is the process of identifying differences in the state of an object or phenomenon by observing it at different times <strong>(Singh 1989; Mouat et al.,1993)</strong>. “Timely and accurate change detection of earth’s surface features provides the foundation for better understanding and interactions between human and natural phenomena to better manage and use resources” <strong>(Lu et al.,2004)</strong>.change detection normally the entails application of multi-temporal data sets to quantitatively analyse the temporal effects of the phenomenon. Because of the advantages of repetitive data acquisition, its synoptic view and digital format suitable for computer processing, remotely sensed data such as thematic matter (Spot radar and advanced very high resolution radio meter have become the major data source for different change detection application during the past decades cited by Lu et al 2004.remote sensing data have assumed an ever increasing strategic role in several application domains. A wide range of applications can be benefited from the study of change process over a specified area at different times. Information about land use is necessary to update land cover maps and for effective management and planning of the resources for sustainable development.</em></p> Sartaj Ahmad Sheikh Ummer Farooq Khanday Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-07 2022-05-07 9 5 158 169 A Study on Influence of Working Environment on Teaching Efficiency of Primary School Teachers Working in Different Schools of Kathua District. https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/493 <p><em>A work environment is the settings in which a person works. It includes the social environment as well as physical conditions of that place which impacts the feelings of wellbeing, workplace relationships and efficiency of the persons working over there. The teacher has a major role in educational development whether he approaches his work actively or passively and for teaching efficiently the teacher must have a good positive working environment. This study aims to quantitatively assess the influence of working environment on teaching efficiency of primary school teachers working in different schools of Kathua district. In the study a sample of 120 teachers (60 males and 60 females) was selected from different primary schools of Kathua district. Teacher effectiveness scale and Work environment scale was used to collect data. Mean, Standard Deviation, Standard Error Deviation, t-test and ANOVA were calculated for the analysis of data. The findings of the study shows that there is interactional effect of good, average and poor work environment on teaching efficiency of teachers.</em></p> Pooja Suman Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-07 2022-05-07 9 5 170 212 Some Fascinating Creatures in Greek Mythology: Their Symbolic Significance and Depiction in Art and Literature https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/494 <p><em>Since earliest times monsters have awed, terrified and enthralled us, and they have figured in the myths, stories, poetry and prose of numerous cultures down the ages. &nbsp;There are thousands of poems and passages about them in Classical (i.e. ancient Greek and Latin) literature, ranging all the way from the horrific to the humorous. Finding stories about these creatures which are highly entertaining in themselves, we acquire a basic grounding in literary criticism which will enable us to read narratives about monsters with more perception and more enjoyment. The depiction of monsters and fascinating creatures in literature reveals a lot about the cultures that produce them. The fact that there were so many Classical monsters makes it clear that they filled a need for the Greeks and Romans, for example by providing a safe thrill and scare. They show us what the ancients feared and also found fascinating, what worried them, and what was felt to be good and normal. They give us insights into a view of the human situation-the trials and horrors of life, and how they overcome the terrifying powers of wild nature.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>: Literature, classical, monsters, insight, Greeks</em></p> Madhu Bala Amit Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-07 2022-05-07 9 5 213 222 GANDHI’S IDEA OF SOCIAL JUSTICE https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/495 <p><em>Justice is something for which human existence has an inborn longing to-something which comes to human naturally. The concept of social justice is a fair and just relation between the individual and society. This is measured by the explicit and tacit terms for public services, labor law and regulation of markets, to ensure fair </em><em>distribution</em> <em>o</em><em>f wealth and opportunities for personal activities and privileges and equality outcome. In many societies, to see justice done is seen as something great, rare and sometimes, a miracle. In such a world, to come across someone who would be described as a personification of justice, would indeed be a miracle. Mohandas KaramChand Gandhi was an experience of a presence of justice for his times, as well as for the world today and was an pioneer of an era of democratic process and spirit who applied constructive work and non-violent as direct actions within the framework of Satyagraha.</em></p> Shalu Chib Palvi Thakur Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 9 5 223 231 Domestic Violence: A Curse for 21st Century https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/496 <p><em>Domestic Violence has a significant impact on the general health and well-being of individuals by causing physical injury, anxiety and depression. It is a serious problem around the world. Domestic violence violates the fundamental human rights of women. It even results in the death of the individual it may be of any type, be it, sexual, physical, emotional, economic, or psychological. Any act which is intended to frighten, manipulate, hurt, humiliate or injure someone is considered as Violence.&nbsp; It can happen to couples who are married, living together or who are dating. Domestic Violence affects people of all socio-economic backgrounds and educational levels. If only the mindset of people could be changed &amp; law enforcement could be enacted in a better way we can hope for a better world.</em></p> Dr. Deepa Pathak Dr. Mani Bansal Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-13 2022-05-13 9 5 232 236 AN INVESTIGATION IN THE CORRELATION BETWEEN ADMINISTRATIVE ATTITUDE OF SCHOOL HEADS AND THEIR SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/497 <p><em>In this study, an attempt has been made to investigative the correlation between administrative attitude of school heads and their social adjustment. Administrative Attitude Scale (AAS)&nbsp; and Social Adjustment Scale (LSS) constructed and validated by the investigator (2021) where used to collect the data from a sample of 484 school heads working in Cuddalore, Kallakurichi and Villupuram Districts of Tamilnadu State in &nbsp;India. The survey method had been followed and stratified random sampling technique was used in administration of the research tools. The statistical techniques adopted to analyse the collected data were descriptive, differential and correlation analysis. The result of the analysis reveals that the level of different dimensions of administrative attitude of school heads namely planning, organization, communicating, motivating, coordinating and professional integrity are averageand also social adjustment is average</em><em>. </em><em>It is found that there is significant difference in the administrative attitude of school heads with respect to their gender and locality of the school;there is significant difference in the social adjustment of school heads with respect to their gender and locality of the school.There is positive and significant relationship between administrative attitude and social adjustment of school heads.</em></p> C. Suganthi Dr. S. Kulasekara Perumal Pillai Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-13 2022-05-13 9 5 237 245 Teaching of Oral Language Skills for Tribal Students: A Brief Study https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/498 <p><em>In a multilingual country like India, contexts such as community, household, and society determine the precedence and preference of each language. Depending on the constraints they face, speakers of a minority language hold diverse preferences and perspectives. Minority language speakers' perspectives influence their attitudes toward both their mother tongue and the dominant language. Consequently, attitude research focuses primarily on inter- disciplinary topics such as psychology, social psychology, and ethnography, among others.</em></p> <p><em>Fundamentally, language attitude research is a sociolinguistic phenomenon that is bilingual and multilingual. The language of golden opportunities is English. It is essential for anyone who wants to create a good carrier. However, we should keep in mind that there is no easy way to acquire effective communication skills, just as there is no easy way to achieve success in life. The process of enhancing and empowering our English communication skills is continuous and ongoing. Almost every aspect of our daily lives revolves around communication.</em></p> <p><em>The teaching of the English language and communication skills to tribal students is a challenge for many teachers in India. In addition, learning English as a foreign or second language is a difficult task for many students from rural and tribal areas. Effective communication in education is crucial to ensuring that students derive the greatest possible benefit from the teaching-learning process. Generally, it is observed that certain psychological and sociocultural constraints can lead to a variety of communication barriers. According to previous research, these obstacles are more prevalent in disadvantaged and underprivileged communities of a society than in privileged and wealthy communities.</em></p> <p><em>Students from tribes areas make up a significant proportion of this marginalised and disadvantaged group.</em></p> Peter Beligraham Pagolu Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-13 2022-05-13 9 5 246 254 Family Relationship, Neuroticism and Psychoticism among Male Juvenile Delinquents and Non-delinquents https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/499 <p><em>The aim of the present research was to study the difference between juvenile delinquents and non-delinquents on psychoticism, neuroticism, and family relationship. The sample (N=70) of juvenile delinquents was collected from a juvenile home in Pune city and sample of non-delinquents was collected from a school situated in the same city through the technique of purposive sampling. The sample used in this research ranged from 13 to 18 years (mean age=16.54years). The tools used in this research were Family Environment Scale (Bhatia &amp; Chaddha,1993) , Eyesenck's Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Eysenck &amp; Eysenck,1985). The results suggests that juvenile delinquents were high on psychoticism (t=7.59,p&lt;0.01) and neuroticism (t=5.90,p&lt;0.01) whereas non-delinquents were high on expressiveness(t=3.24,p&lt;0.01) and acceptance &amp; caring(t=4.93,p&lt;0.01).</em></p> Dr. Dinesh Naik Shubham Sherekar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-13 2022-05-13 9 5 255 265 How Many Green Jobs are There in the USA? https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/505 <p><em>Green jobs are of intense interest in the USA but have not been rigorously estimated.&nbsp; While green jobs are desirable and are increasing rapidly, consistent time series estimates and forecasts of these jobs are not available.&nbsp; This has impeded research and policy development.&nbsp; We analyze and compare the estimates of USA green jobs currently available.&nbsp; We note that these estimates differ markedly, and summarize the reasons for the discrepancies.&nbsp; We then present an estimate of the jobs created by the USA green economy in 2020 and discuss why this estimate is the most viable.&nbsp; We note that most persons in jobs created by the green economy do not realize that they owe their livelihood to the green economy and that the number of jobs generated by the green economy are is least 3 or 4 times larger than realized.&nbsp; We conclude that the significance of green jobs is not appreciated and this has serious economic, environmental, and policy implications that must be remedied.</em></p> Dr. Roger H. Bezdek Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-13 2022-05-13 9 5 266 288 Investigation of Eavesdropping and Error Detection of OCDMA-Free Code https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/506 <p><em>This paper presents the security performance of spectral amplitude code OCDMA systems. We examine factors affecting data security such as system capacity and its influents on the eavesdropped SNR. The eavesdropper probability of error-free code detection for Modified Double Weight (MDW) OCDMA scheme is investigated. The eavesdropper performance is based on observing the authorized transmitted signal based on classical detection theory. For probability of correct detection of 0.5, an eavesdropper receiver would need to detect SNRs of 8, 9.3 and 10 dB for MDW (9, 4), MDW (18, 6) and MDW (30,8) &nbsp;Respectively </em></p> Mohamed Mansour Shukra Alsanossi M. Aboghrara Ahmed Imsaeri Omar Imsaeri Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-13 2022-05-13 9 5 289 295 Negotiating Postcolonial Aspects in Manjula Padmanavan’s Harvest https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/508 <p><em>Post colonialism simply focused on the impact of human control and exploitation of colonized people and their lands. It aims to expose the themes and representatives that have imposed imperial ideology, colonial dominance, and western hegemony. This study attempts to explore the post colonial aspects in the play Harvest by Manjula Padmanabhan. Using post colonial motifs and themes like cultural dominance, surveillance etc, and the paper explores how the people of the Third World are subjected to subjugation at the hands of the powerful people of the First World. Besides the paper aims to demonstrate that colonizing the mind is a constant process and there was also opposition to the First World influences.</em></p> Karishma Parvin Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-20 2022-05-20 9 5 296 300 A Study on Globalization & It’s Impact on Indian Economy https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/512 <p><strong><em>Globalization</em></strong> means different things to different people. It can be defined simply as an expansion of economic activities across political boundaries of nation states. More importantly it refers to a process of deepening economic integration, increasing economic openness and growing economic interdependence between countries in the world economy. It is associated not only with a phenomenal spread and volume of cross-border economic transactions but also with an organization of economic activities which straddle national boundaries of the world. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong><em>Globalization</em></strong> has many meanings depending on the context and on the person who is talking about. The term <em>globalization</em> refers to the integration of economies of the world through uninhibited trade and financial flows, as also through mutual exchange of technology and knowledge. Ideally, it also contains free inter-country movement of labour. <em>Globalization </em>has played a major role in export- led growth, leading to the enlargement of the job market in India. Indian economy had experienced major policy changes in early 1990s. The new economic reform, popularly known as, <em>Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization (LPG model)</em> aimed at making the Indian economy as fastest growing economy and globally competitive. With the onset of reforms to liberalize the Indian economy in July of 1991, a new chapter has dawned for India and her billion plus population. This period of economic transition has had a tremendous impact on the overall economic development of almost all major sectors of the economy, and its <em>globalization</em> on India. Throughout this paper, there is an underlying focus on the impact of globalization on India’s foreign trade and Indian economy.</p> Shrimati Anupama Shukla Dr. Imtiyaz Ahmad Lone Dr. Naina Dubay Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-20 2022-05-20 9 5 301 311 Exploring the Nature of Time in Thomas Stearns Eliot’s “Burnt Norton” https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/513 <p><em>The poem “Burnt Norton” (1936) is one of the poems from his collection of poems <strong>Four Quartets</strong> (1936-1942). The poem is an important piece that evaluates the concept of time. This research will attempt to discuss the nature of time that Eliot tried to present in the poem. It seems that the poem has a direct influence of Bergson’s philosophy of time as well as Einstein’s relativity of time. The poem captures both of the influences where the nature of time is not fixed but exists in a duality where the time reference of past and future exist in the present itself. This existence is seen in the ability of the mind to go back in time to past and future references. However, the poem seems to project Einstein’s relativity of time where time is relative and all the flow of time references exist simultaneously and merely an illusion.</em></p> Monush R Marak Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-20 2022-05-20 9 5 312 321 Developing Perfect Square Root Board Games for Teaching Square Root in Secondary Schools and Colleges https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/514 <p><em>Mathematics has continued to play a significant role in the national development of any country. To achieve the modern technology in teaching.&nbsp; Mathematics by the year 2025, emphasis should be laid on the use of teaching aids. Teaching aids help to make teaching effective and learning permanent to learners. The purpose of this paper is to develop perfect square root board games for teaching square root in secondary schools. This serves as teaching aids and square root is an aspect of mathematics in junior secondary schools. The paper introduced square root of numbers as an aspect of mathematics and its importance to other aspect of mathematics was discussed. </em></p> <p><em>The statement of problem has reported poor achievement of students in mathematics. the game is being introduced to help in the improvement of the standard of mathematics understanding. The method of playing the game was also introduced. The game is made up of wooden board glass and chart including roots of numbers. The game can also be presented in electronic form. The use of square root board game will enhance the teaching and learning of mathematics, which will go a long way in encouraging students that are not interested in learning mathematics to develop an interest. In conclusion it was recommended that government should encourage the use of game in the teaching and learning of mathematics in all secondary schools. Also mathematics teachers should be trained and retrained on the use of games to teach different concepts in mathematics. This should be done through seminal, workshops and conferences.</em></p> Dr. (Mrs) Comfort C. Onyeneho Elizabeth Onyewadume Blessing Omorkaro Chiedu Ekwemuka Philip Ekene Babundo Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-20 2022-05-20 9 5 322 333