International Journal of Research https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr <div>International Journal of Research (IJR) with ISSN 2348-6848 (Online) and 2348-795X (Print) is an international peer reviewed, internationally refereed, online, open-access journal published monthly. International Journal of Research (IJR) represents a revolution in scholarly journal publishing platform. A pioneering effort in liberal, open access publishing with fast and high quality peer review that brings journal publishing to the doorstep of every researcher and student. We believe that quality information should be free and accessible universally in this day and age. The ideology of an open-access journal is in being free for all and IJR will be free for all to read and share.</div> <div>Send papers to <strong>ijr@ijrjournal.com</strong></div> <div><strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="homepageImage"><img src="https://journals.pen2print.org/public/journals/1/homepageImage_en_US.png" alt="Journal Homepage Image" width="158" height="106" /></div> <strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="additionalHomeContent"> <p>IJR takes special care to publish your research paper/article without any delay. Our journal aims to bring out the latent research talent and the professional work done by Scientists, Engineers, Architects, Planners, Practitioners, Administrators, Scholars, Graduate and Post Graduate students across all fields. This journal welcomes the submission of your research papers that meet our submission guidelines and the general criteria of significance and excellence in the field of Engineering, Science and Humanities. Submitted articles are peer reviewed by our panel of experts from various fields. All submitted papers are double-checked for plagiarized content. Please note that all submissions need to be previously unpublished.</p> </div> </div> Edupedia Publications Pvt Ltd en-US International Journal of Research 2348-795X Enhancing Underwater Image Quality through Image Processing https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1346 <p><strong>Underwater images find application in various fields, like marine research, inspection of aquatic habitat, underwater surveillance, identification of minerals, and more. Longer wavelengths are absorbed by water at greater depths. Due to the greater wavelength, red is absorbed and the images seem primarily bluish-green. Images suffer greatly as a result of these phenomena, which causes low contrast, color distortion, and poor visibility. Underwater photos must therefore be improved in order to retain the important information they provide and make them suitable for a variety of uses. </strong></p> <p><strong>The proposed system enhances underwater image quality through image processing techniques. The system includes color correction, image sharpening and image fusion methods and aims to provide more accurate solutions for underwater image enhancement. This system offers real-time adaptability, making it suitable for applications like underwater robotics, live video streaming, and autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). It has the potential to significantly impact scientific research, exploration, and underwater technology by improving underwater image quality and versatility.</strong></p> R. Mamatha P. Sowmya B. Suprathika B. Abhigna Ch. Nissi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-06 2024-05-06 11 05 1 6 Loneliness and Sensation-Seeking on Problematic Internet Use between Unmarried Early Adults https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1352 <p><em>The psychosocial development stage of</em><em>&nbsp;early adulthood is intimacy versus isolation. Intimacy can be obtained through marriage. Many early adults cannot fulfill these stages, so they experience social isolation, which results in Loneliness, so individuals use the Internet as an escape media. Increased Internet use will cause problematic Internet use, where individuals cannot control themselves not to access the Internet, ultimately providing negative outcomes in everyday life. In addition, problematic Internet use is also often associated with Sensation-Seeking. This study aims to explore the role of Loneliness and Sensation-Seeking and their association with problematic Internet use in a sample of unmarried early adults. This study is a quantitative study using A Rasch-type Loneliness Scale by Gierveld &amp; Tilburg (2006) with a reliability of 0.840, Arnett Inventory of Sensation-Seeking Scale (AISS) by Arnett (1994) with a reliability of 0.733, and The Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS2) by Caplan (2010) with a reliability of 0.903. Subjects in the study were selected using a purposive sampling technique totaling 111 unmarried early adults aged 22-33 years who are active in accessing social media in their daily lives. Hypotheses were analyzed using multiple regression analysis.</em></p> Rezky Cahyaningtyas Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 11 05 7 22 Prescribed-Time Formation Bipartite Containment of Layered Multi-agent Systems https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1348 <p><em>This paper aims to address the problem of prescribed-time formation bipartite containment for two-layered MASs (multi-agent systems). In this system, the leader layer engages in a purely cooperative relationship, while the follower layer engages in both cooperation and competition.</em> <em>Moreover, there exists a restraining relationship between the leader layer and corresponding follower layer. By introducing a time-varying function, this paper presents a novel prescribed-time distributed control protocol. The protocol is designed to drive all the leaders to form a formation within a specified time, while the followers simultaneously converge into the convex hulls formed by the states as well as the sign-inverted states of the leaders. Using Lyapunov stability theory, linear matrix inequality, the paper obtains the sufficient conditions for MASs to converge in a specified time and the stability about control algorithm is discussed in detail. Finally, a numerical simulation example is performed to verify the effectiveness of the presented theory. </em></p> Tao Li Kaiyin Huang Jialong Tian Zijie Jiang Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-06 2024-05-06 11 05 23 34 Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel Using Carica Papaya Leaves Extract https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1349 <p><em>Gravimetric methods were used to test the ability of Carica papaya leaves extract (CPLE) on corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1M HCl acidic solution. The temperature of the reaction, the concentration of the extract, and the length of immersion were changed during the experiments. According to the weight loss method's results, mild steel corrodes less quickly as extract concentration rises while inhibition efficiency also rises with increase in extract concentration. 90.02% was the maximum inhibitory efficiency for CPLE at 1.0g/L that was noted. Studies on temperature showed that inhibition efficiency increased with decrease in temperature and that, in contrast to unrestrained solutions, activation energies decreased in inhibited solutions. For the purpose of inhibiting behavior, a mechanism of physical adsorption of the plant components on the metal surface is proposed. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were computed and examined. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was followed by the CPLE's adsorption on the mild steel surface. According to SEM-EDX data, CPLE delayed the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M HCl by forming an adsorption coating on the surface.</em></p> Adebayo Oluwafemi Lawrence Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-06 2024-05-06 11 05 35 70 Navigating Power, Politics, and Change: A Holistic Approach to Organizational Effectiveness https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1350 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><span lang="EN">This article comprehensively analyses role dynamics, power, political organization, and change organization in the literature on modern management. Six articles were studied critically to highlight various perspectives on various topics. Although every article offers unique insight, they emphasize the importance of understanding dynamics, power, behaviour politics, and management change in context organization. Based on this outlook, a holistic approach in management, focusing on building culture and reducing organizations'​ conflict politics, is not healthy. By adopting this approach, an organization can balance its employees' effectiveness, performance, and well-being, enhancing productivity and sustainable success.​</span></em></p> Matias Andika Yuwono Lena Ellitan Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 11 05 71 74 Evolution of Management Theories & Their Impact on Employee Motivation https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1351 <p><em>This study explores the evolution of employee motivation theories, highlighting the shift from a focus on structures and extrinsic rewards to a more nuanced understanding that incorporates social interaction, non-monetary motivators, and individual needs. Key theories such as Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory, and Contingency Theory are examined, emphasizing their strengths and limitations. The analysis acknowledges the dynamic nature of the workplace and calls for further exploration of emerging motivational concepts like Self-Determination Theory.&nbsp; Future research directions are proposed, including longitudinal studies, cross-cultural comparisons, investigating the impact of technology, and evaluating the effectiveness of motivational interventions. By addressing these limitations and pursuing new avenues of inquiry, organizations can build a more comprehensive understanding of employee motivation, fostering a more engaged and thriving workforce in the ever-changing work environment.</em></p> Sumit Choudhary Mayank Agarwal Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 11 05 75 91 Book Review - Economics of Education: Selected Issues to Educators https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1353 <p><em>Scarcity of resources required to implement curriculum at all levels of education has been felt globally; the situation has further been worsened by emergence of Covid-19 pandemic. Therefore there is need for a reform in the use of resources that have been dedicated to the education sector in order to achieve the goals of education. The book </em><strong><em>Economics of Education: Selected issues </em></strong><em>to Educators</em><em> sets out to deal with these matters. In its six chapters; the work addresses conceptual issues related to the subject;</em><em> integration between Education and human capital. The Macro-economic &amp; Micro-economic approaches are thoroughly examined. Basic features of Economic analysis of educational intervention and importance are tackled. The notion of cost-benefit is ideally attended to. Additionally, education efficiency and financing of higher education are also well discussed. The author traces the global perspective on financing higher education, the types of financing higher education are also put into consideration where funding of &nbsp;higher education in Tanzania is used as case study. The section on quality education looks at rationale of providing quality education among other issues. The work is recommended as a text book for economics of education at undergraduate and post graduate levels. </em></p> Daniel Oduor Onyango Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 11 05 92 95 Contributions of Phytogenic Foods Safety and Nutritional Practices to the Fight Against COVID-19 in the African Region https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1354 <p><em>Undeniably, and still painful, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on human health, societies, and the economies world over, and the African region. The COVID-19 burden is uneven and the variation in incidences across countries is driven by socio-ecological factors, likewise, the severity and risk of mortality after infection is influenced by biophysical factors. Imputed public health response measures and health system responses contributed significantly to minimising the above factors. Notwithstanding, the observed relatively less dead cases in the African region vis-à-vis other regions of the world may be linked to natural availability and socio-economic access to phytogenic foods, as well as food safety and healthy nutritional practices. This review has briefly discussed the roles of phytogenic food safety and nutritional practices vis-à-vis fight against COVID-19. In brief, phytogenic foods appear to be a promising option to fight against COVID-19 as they are known to contain vital flavonoids and antioxidants. When considering that a good immune system helps to fight against the virus, the boost of immunity requires eating a nutritious diet as the immune system relies on a steady supply of nutrients to work well. These nutrients are better taken whole (than in supplements) with food safety observed. </em></p> Wilfred A. Abia Brice A. Owona Ufuan Achidi Angèle Tchana Madjo Fotsing Marie Esther Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-11 2024-05-11 11 05 96 104 Assembling Missiles in Air and Societal Evolution: Explorations of Security, Sociology, and Natural Phenomena https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1355 <p><em>This paper explores multifaceted technological, sociological, and biological themes. It examines innovative concepts of assembling missiles in the air, creating capsule cities, and adapting humanoid robots for flight. Furthermore, it investigates the etymological and sociological aspects of racism, discusses natural defensive mechanisms in animals and plants, and explores early civilization rituals and their symbolism. Finally, it presents a sociological perspective on religious practices and the development of human societies. Through this interdisciplinary analysis, this paper synthesizes ideas that range from security innovations to the cognitive impact of evolutionary changes.</em></p> Elif HAN Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-11 2024-05-11 11 05 105 107 Hypertension may be Driving Force to Enhance Kidney Disorder https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1356 <p><em>A common ailment during the onset of renal disease and a major factor in its advancement is hypertension. The complicated chain of events that leads from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) to chronic kidney disease (CKD) is constituted by hallmark variables leading to hypertension. The pathophysiology of elevated cardiovascular (CV) events linked to chronic kidney disease (CKD) is significantly influenced by the several crosstalk mechanisms that maintain the BP state that is unavoidably elevated in CKD. Age, weight, type of renal disease, and extent of renal impairment all affect the prevalence and severity of hypertension. A clear distinction between volume- and renin-type hypertension is challenging to make, yet salt retention and imbalance regarding the actions of several vasoactive chemicals play critical roles in multifactorial etiology. There is evidence for important strategic routes that can slow the evolution of hypertensive kidney disease, as controlling high blood pressure by therapeutic interventions can represent the key strategy to reduce both blood pressure and the cardiovascular load in kidney disease. High blood pressure is a significant risk factor for both kidney and cardiovascular illness in addition to being a sign of chronic kidney disease.</em></p> Iftear Kazim Rafi Md Aktaruzzaman Fahim Shahrier Rahman Md Ruhul Amin Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-11 2024-05-11 11 05 108 115 Food Authenticity and its Importance for Customer Satisfaction in Terms of Persuasion https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1357 <p><em>The process of certifying food as halal, which involves identifying hidden ingredients, technological processing, manufacturing methods, and species substitution in halal food products, has become more popular due to rising public awareness of food safety and quality. This emphasizes how meticulous research into analytical methods is required to generate accurate and reliable data for monitoring and controlling the authenticity of halal food. This paper provides a succinct, unbiased overview of recent findings about the analytical techniques used to determine if food is truly halal.</em></p> Fahim Shahrier Rahman Arafath Jubayer Md Jubayr Hasan Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 11 05 116 123 A Practical Approach of Software Fault Prediction Using Error Probabilities and Machine Learning Approaches https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1359 <p><em>identification of software faults associated with software. The identification of faults is usually carried out using the task of classification. The task of classification utilises the code attributes and other features to predict the fault instances. The detection of software faults is prominently affected by a poor classification decision and hence an improved decision-making model is required to predict the patterns using the attributes collected out from the datasets. In the first part of the research, the study proposes a Bayes Decision classifier associated with the finding of error probabilities and integrals in software fault prediction. This chapter discusses the fundamental software error prediction using feature and classifier data. It also discusses the proposed software error prediction with fault predictable region that includes Chernoff Bound and Bhattacharyya Bound. The proposed Bayesian decision algorithm with error probabilities and integrals of fault predictions learning model is used to predict the software faults. It works on two different bounds namely Chernoff Bound and Bhattacharyya Bound.The performance of the proposed methods is tested against several other machine learning classifier over collected software fault datasets. </em></p> Raja Lodhi Rajkumar Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 11 05 124 137 Learning Gaps and Proficiency Levels in Science Specialized Subjects of Senior High School Students in Surigao City, Philippines https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1360 <p><em>This study examines the learning gaps and proficiency levels in science-specialized subjects among grade 12 Senior High School STEM students at St. Paul University Surigao. The goal is to identify areas of weakness and develop targeted interventions to enhance students' understanding and academic achievement. A cross-sectional design and purposive sampling technique are employed to assess multiple subjects simultaneously. Diagnostic and post-tests are conducted, and statistical measures are used for analysis. The findings indicate varying levels of mastery and learning gaps in specific topics, highlighting the need for targeted interventions. The study emphasizes the importance of effective instructional strategies, considering factors like gender and learning approaches, and utilizing interventions such as the Mastery Learning Approach and Learning Management Systems. The results provide valuable insights for educators, curriculum developers, and policymakers to enhance science education at St. Paul University Surigao. Recommendations include establishing support programs, providing professional development for educators, and allocating resources for a comprehensive science curriculum integrating technology. Implementation of these recommendations can create a supportive and inclusive learning environment, ultimately improving the quality of science education at the institution.</em></p> Joey S. Simbajon Mauricio S. Adlaon Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 11 05 138 158 Coparcenary Rights of Women: A Journey from Non-Existence to Full Existence https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1361 <p>As per jurisprudence and legal history, Hindu Law is a branch of Dharma&nbsp; and combination of morality and religion with legal principles. Female heirs are enumerated differently in different schools of Hindu Law. This Article is focussing on Mitakshara Law and its Schools and codification of Law and its amendments from time to time, coparcenery&nbsp; vis a vis female heirs and interpretation of legislation by Judiciary. Every member of a Mitakshara joint family, including their wives and unmarried&nbsp; daughters, is derived from a common ancestor. No female was a member of coparcenary. Then came the fragmentary Acts e.g. Hindu Women’s Right to Property Act 1937 under which widow , widow of a predeceased son or widow&nbsp; of a predeceased son of a predeceased son are treated on the same level as the male issue of the last owner. However, the widow does not on that account becomes a coparcener. Constitution (1950) granted equal rights particularly &nbsp;<a href="https://indiankanoon.org/doc/367586/">Article 14</a>&nbsp;of the Constitution and <a href="https://indiankanoon.org/doc/609295/">Article 15</a>&nbsp;of the Constitution which prohibits any discrimination on the ground of religion or gender. Codification of Hindu Law has taken place keeping this avowed objective in mind.&nbsp; Under codified law i.e. Hindu Succession Act 1956 (old law will continue to remain applicable for which no provision is made in the Act of 1956) Section 6 as unamended affected the doctrine of Mitakshara Law of Coparcenary viz. if a Coparcener dies leaving behind any <strong>female relative</strong> specified in Class I of the Schedule to the Act or male relative&nbsp; specified in that class <strong>claiming through such female relative</strong>, i.e. around 12 preferential heirs, his undivided interest in the Mitakshara coparcenary property would devolve upon his heirs by intestate succession as per section 8. The rules of Succession under 1956 Act are based on principle of equality enunciated in the Constitution however female was not a Coparcener. State Act i.e. <strong>The Hindu Succession (Maharashtra Amendment) Act, 1994 added Chapter IIA, </strong>Section 29A&nbsp; which mentioned that&nbsp;&nbsp; under Mitakshara Law, daughters shall become coparceners by birth in their&nbsp; own right and can claim by survivorship; however&nbsp; the said amendment Act is not applicable to daughters married before the commencement of Maharashtra Amendment Act 1994. The Hindu Succession Act amendments&nbsp; passed in 2005 granted daughters the same status as coparceners, which was justifiable and opened the door for the law's inclusive application—albeit in a weakened magnitude. Bombay High Court in Vaishali Satish Ganorkar matter(infra) observed<strong> “</strong><em>The mischief that was remedied was the discrimination between the daughter and a son in a legislation that was enacted 6 years after the coming into force of the Constitution of India which granted equal rights to all persons irrespective of their sex. The discrimination prevailed for 50 years despite the constitutional mandate of equality.” </em>Legislation, amendments and interpretations to the same by Judiciary has&nbsp;&nbsp; resulted in situations which at times do not provide logically consistent answers and some anomalous circumstances &nbsp;and varying consequences are bound to result.&nbsp; Various opinions were evolved viz. 2005 amendment is having prospective effect, retrospective effect, retroactive effect etc.&nbsp; Accordingly various interpretations resulting in conflicting judgments were arrived at&nbsp; Eg.&nbsp; Bombay HC in <strong>Vaishali Satish Ganorkar &amp; Anr vs Mr. Satish Keshaorao Ganorkar &amp; ... on 30 January, 2012 </strong>has observed that<strong> -</strong>“<em>No interest can devolve in a coparcenary property except on the death of the coparcener….</em><em>the interpretation </em><em>&nbsp;</em>that rights under the amendment are applicable to living daughters of living coparceners as on 9th September, 2005 irrespective of when such daughters are born. Interpretation of Section 6 was referred to a <strong>larger&nbsp;Bench</strong>&nbsp;in&nbsp;view&nbsp;of&nbsp;the&nbsp;conflicting verdicts rendered in two Division bench judgments of Supreme Court in Prakash &amp; Others Vs. Phulavati &amp; Ors., (2016) 2 SCC 36 and&nbsp; Danamma&nbsp;@Suman Surpur &amp; Anr. v.&nbsp;Amar&nbsp;&amp;&nbsp;Ors.,(2018)3SCC343. Full&nbsp; Bench of Supreme Court (a landmark judgment) in <strong>Vineeta Sharma vs Rakesh Sharma (on 11 August, 2020)&nbsp; stated&nbsp; that provision is retroactive i.e. </strong>recognising an antecedent event for conferral of rights, prospectively and observed interalia “<em>Since the right in coparcenary is by birth, it is not necessary that father coparcener should be living as on 9.9.2005” </em>and overruled the views to the contrary expressed in Prakash v. Phulavati and Mangammal v. T.B. Raju &amp; Ors. The opinion expressed in Danamma @ Suman Surpur &amp; Anr. v. Amar is partly overruled to the extent it is contrary to this decision . Land Reform Laws / Land Acquisition Laws are not in uniformity with&nbsp; the&nbsp; personal Laws.&nbsp; Chhattisgarh High Court in <strong>Sanjay K. Agrawal</strong> (infra) (Dated Jan 21, 2016) has held,“<em>R&amp;R Policy regarding employment being violative and discriminatory to the extent of excluding married daughter from consideration for employment, is hereby declared void and inoperative”</em>.&nbsp; <strong>Supreme Court in </strong><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;Har Naraini Devi (infra) (Dated Sep 20, 2022) has held “</strong><em>31. … there can be no challenge to the&nbsp;</em>1954<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Act<em>&nbsp;(Delhi Land Reforms Act) as the said legislation is included in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution of India, this argument(Gender bias/women empowerment)&nbsp; also has no legs to stand.” </em>Supreme Court of India<strong>, in&nbsp; </strong><strong>Kamala Neti (infra ) dated&nbsp; 9 December, 2022 </strong>has observed&nbsp; <em>“in view of Section 2(2) of Hindu Succession Act and the appellant being the member of the Scheduled Tribe and as the female member of the Scheduled Tribe is specifically excluded, the appellant is not entitled to any right of survivorship under the provisions of Hindu Succession Act…”</em>&nbsp; In <strong>Prakash vs Phulvati</strong>&nbsp; the Hon’ble Supreme Court referred to the observations of Sahai, J. in&nbsp;(<a href="https://indiankanoon.org/doc/733037/">Sarla Mudgal vs. Union of India</a>&nbsp;(1995) 3 SCC 635)&nbsp; that a climate was required to be built for a uniform civil code.<em>&nbsp; </em>Section 44 and Section 14 of the Constitution need to be implemented in letter and spirit . Recent laudable judgment of the Hon’ble Supreme Court in&nbsp; Vineeta Sharma vs. Rakesh Sharma is a giant&nbsp; leap in that direction .In&nbsp; the matter of&nbsp;<strong>Charu Khurana v. Union of India</strong> (<a href="https://www.casemine.com/judgement/in/5609af17e4b014971141592d">2012) 7 SCC 248</a>), Their Lordships of the Supreme Court while considering the question of&nbsp;gender&nbsp;justice observed as&nbsp;under:“ ... <em>it is clear as a cloudless sky that all practices derogatory to the dignity of women are to be renounced.”</em><em>&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> Madhubala Sheokumar Shukla Haider Ali Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-17 2024-05-17 11 05 159 193