International Journal of Research 2024-07-17T15:01:27+00:00 D Bong Open Journal Systems <div>International Journal of Research (IJR) with ISSN 2348-6848 (Online) and 2348-795X (Print) is an international peer reviewed, internationally refereed, online, open-access journal published monthly. International Journal of Research (IJR) represents a revolution in scholarly journal publishing platform. A pioneering effort in liberal, open access publishing with fast and high quality peer review that brings journal publishing to the doorstep of every researcher and student. We believe that quality information should be free and accessible universally in this day and age. The ideology of an open-access journal is in being free for all and IJR will be free for all to read and share.</div> <div>Send papers to <strong></strong></div> <div><strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="homepageImage"><img src="" alt="Journal Homepage Image" width="158" height="106" /></div> <strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="additionalHomeContent"> <p>IJR takes special care to publish your research paper/article without any delay. Our journal aims to bring out the latent research talent and the professional work done by Scientists, Engineers, Architects, Planners, Practitioners, Administrators, Scholars, Graduate and Post Graduate students across all fields. This journal welcomes the submission of your research papers that meet our submission guidelines and the general criteria of significance and excellence in the field of Engineering, Science and Humanities. Submitted articles are peer reviewed by our panel of experts from various fields. All submitted papers are double-checked for plagiarized content. Please note that all submissions need to be previously unpublished.</p> </div> </div> Exploring Effective Strategies for Teaching Practical Procedures in Text and Image Editing 2024-07-04T13:58:49+00:00 Hsin Chi Ko <p><em>In the era of the knowledge economy, the integration of information technology into several sectors has caused a significant shift in the editing and publishing industry. This study investigates efficient instructional methods for manipulating text and images, with a particular focus on utilizing Adobe InDesign (ID) software. The report highlights the shift from traditional manual editing methods to digital processes, emphasizing the importance of digital intelligence skills in modern publishing. The study seeks to examine several facets of editing in Adobe InDesign, encompassing master page editing, text manipulation, image modification, vector graphics manipulation, color adjustment, object manipulation, line modification, table manipulation, layout modification, and packaging techniques. The study employs a conceptual analytic framework to examine these issues, providing comprehensive guidance for both inexperienced and experienced designers. The findings indicate that effective use of ID requires an understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of graphic design. Users can determine job priorities by categorizing important strategies into three levels of importance: necessary, recommended, and optional. The study also investigates the impact of visual aesthetics, the incorporation of text and images, and the significance of innovation in producing captivating and coherent designs. This study makes a significant contribution to the profession by providing structured methods and useful knowledge to improve text and image editing abilities. The statement underscores the need to strike a balance between visual appeal and functional clarity, ensuring that each visual element enhances the overall effectiveness of the publication in effectively expressing its message. The operational strategies described in this study are a valuable asset for maximizing productivity and achieving excellent results in graphic projects.</em></p> 2024-07-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Corporate Governance, Sustainability, and Corporate Performance: Multi-Level Perspectives from Existing Companies 2024-07-06T02:30:07+00:00 Matias Andika Yuwono Lena Ellitan <p><em>This article explores the complex relationship between corporate governance (GCG), sustainability, and firm performance, focusing on incumbent firms in the plastic packaging industry. It adopts a multi-level perspective, examining how factors at the individual (e.g., entrepreneurial orientation), organizational (e.g., board structure), and ecosystem (e.g., stakeholder engagement) levels interact to shape sustainability performance. The article delves into the dynamics of proactive versus reactive approaches in firms' sustainability transitions, emphasizing the critical role of circular business model innovation in achieving sustainability goals. By analyzing in-depth case studies and empirical evidence from diverse contexts, this article aims to provide insights into how incumbent firms can successfully navigate the challenges and opportunities associated with sustainability, contributing to the development of more environmentally and socially responsible business models.</em></p> 2024-07-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Transformative Approaches to Teaching and Learning Civic Education: A Case of Selected Secondary Schools in Lusaka District, Zambia 2024-07-08T10:12:09+00:00 Chanda Chansa Thelma <p><strong><em>Overview:</em></strong><em> Transformative approaches to teaching and learning civic education emphasize active, participatory methods that empower students to engage critically with social and political issues. This study was carried out in Lusaka district, the capital city of Zambia.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Body of Knowledge:</em></strong><em> Transformative approaches move beyond traditional rote learning to foster critical thinking, problem-solving, and collaborative skills. They incorporate experiential learning opportunities, such as community service, simulations, and debates, which allow students to connect theoretical knowledge with real-world applications.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>The study adopted a mixed methods approach which is a combination of quantitative and qualitative data. The study was conducted in 5 selected secondary schools of Lusaka district, targeting 5-Head Teachers, 10-Teachers of Civic Education, 200-Students in Civic Education and 35 Community Members. The target population was 2500, with 250 as sample size. Qualitative data collected from semi-structured interview schedules was analyzed thematically in line with research objectives; while data generated from the questionnaires were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 26) and Microsoft Excel (version 16) to come up with charts, and graphs.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> The<em> findings indicated that transformative approaches to teaching and learning civic education have demonstrated significant potential in fostering active citizenship and social responsibility among students. These approaches prioritize critical thinking, participatory learning, and real-world problem-solving, enabling students to engage deeply with civic issues. Experiential learning activities, such as community projects and service learning, have been particularly effective in bridging theoretical knowledge and practical application. Moreover, the integration of technology and digital platforms has enhanced student engagement and accessibility to diverse perspectives.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Recommendation</em></strong><em>: </em><em>Schools and members of the community should provide opportunities for students to participate in community projects, advocacy campaigns, or volunteer activities related to civic issues. This practical engagement helps students develop a sense of responsibility and empowerment as active contributors to their communities.</em></p> 2024-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Virtual Communication: use, abuse and addictions in Social Networks. 2024-07-08T10:44:01+00:00 Manuel Aguilar Yuste <p><em>Seventeen years ago that social networks entered the scene, first with Friendster and MySpace, then with Facebook in 2004; but it was not until the appearance and subsequent massification of smartphones between 2008 and 2010, that social networks became ubiquitous. Today we are talking about digital marketing, influencers, new business models based on big data and the number of "clicks", changes in social paradigms and new types of addiction. But, do we really understand what social networks are and how they affect us? Do we know its true scope? In this article, we will address the main issues of the digital world and we will know some of the possible interpretations that social networks cause in our lives, and it aims to discuss the causes and effects of addiction to social networks, the positive and negative consequences that result of addiction and analyzes the measures taken to stop all the effects that addiction brings in our daily lives.</em></p> 2024-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Site Suitability Analysis for Solar Energy Farms in Enugu State, Using GIS and Remote Sensing 2024-07-10T02:04:59+00:00 Adeboboye A. J. Inaju I.U Atoki L.O Agada A.S <p><em>Identifying suitable sites for renewable energy deployment poses a technical challenge, demanding an approach considering various factors; technical, physical, economic, social, environmental, and political. Leveraging tools like Geographic Information System (GIS) and Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) becomes imperative for site selection, offering a comprehensive framework integrating high-resolution remote sensing data. GIS, a potent technological ally, empowers decision-makers with geospatial insights critical for renewable energy development. Therefore, the study aimed at a site suitability analysis for solar energy farms in Enugu State, Nigeria, with a view to identify suitable locations for harvesting renewable energy such as Solar energy. Its objectives were to: </em><em>establish the factors needed for mapping Solar Energy potential in the study area</em><em>; </em><em>classify the established factors according to their level of suitability;</em> <em>calculate the reliability index of the classified factors and </em><em>to </em><em>determine the Solar Energy potential areas using analytical hierarchical process and weighted linear combination.</em><em> The results were classified according to their levels of suitability. The high suitable areas for solar development in Enugu State covered 1000.4 km<sup>2</sup>, with a percentage coverage of 13.39%. the moderate suitability for solar development covered 2605.50km<sup>2</sup> with a percentage coverage of 33.82%. lastly, the low suitable areas for solar development covered 4066.6km<sup>2</sup> with a percentage coverage of 52.79%, the study area. The study's approach is recommended to serve as a basis for making location suitability decisions for siting similar renewable energy sources in other regions of Nigeria.</em></p> 2024-07-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 An Investigation into The Implementation of Self-Reliant and Entrepreneurial Education in Selected Zambian Universities 2024-07-10T14:15:17+00:00 Chanda Chansa Thelma Chisebe Sylvester Loveness Ngulube <p><strong><em>Overview:</em></strong><em> The purpose of the study was to investigate the implementation of self-reliance and entrepreneurial education in selected Zambian Universities. The study was conducted in Lusaka district and it brought out the factors that lead to failure of skills development in the Zambian Universities as the focus has been on improving educational standards which are a requirement by the employers.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Body of Knowledge:</em></strong><em> The implementation of self-reliant and entrepreneurial education in selected Zambian universities represents a significant shift in the higher education landscape, aiming to equip students with practical skills and entrepreneurial mindsets. This approach addresses the pressing need for graduates to be self-sufficient and innovative in a rapidly changing job market.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>The study adopted a descriptive survey, combining quantitative and qualitative data. The study was conducted in 4 universities from Lusaka district, targeting University Lecturers and Students. The target population was 4000, with 400 as sample size. Data was analyzed qualitatively as the semi structured interviews and questionnaires were used as data collection instruments. Thematic approach was used, where data analysis started with the categorization of themes from the questionnaires. Quantitative techniques were also applied though the larger part of the research was qualitative by design. The study utilized the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel to come up with charts, graphs, and Tables.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>The study revealed that while there is a growing recognition of the importance of entrepreneurial education, the actual implementation is uneven across institutions. Some universities have successfully integrated entrepreneurial modules into their curricula, providing students with practical skills and knowledge. However, others face challenges such as inadequate funding, lack of trained staff, and insufficient industry linkages. The study also indicated that where entrepreneurial education is well-implemented, students exhibit higher levels of creativity, innovation, and readiness to start their own businesses. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Recommendation</em></strong><em>: </em><em>Universities should promote interdisciplinary collaboration to incorporate practical entrepreneurial skills within theoretical frameworks and encourage partnerships between faculties such as business, engineering, and social sciences to foster a holistic educational approach.</em></p> 2024-07-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Exploring the Job Satisfaction Trends among the MNCs IT Professionals a Study in Hyderabad, Telangana 2024-07-11T07:05:10+00:00 Mogilicherla Ramyasree T. Krishna Kumar <p><em>The rise of Multinational Corporations (MNCs) and the interconnected world driven by IT have created a complex landscape. While information technology flattens the globe for businesses, success in MNCs hinges on a delicate balance: strong business strategy, efficient organizational structure, and robust information systems (referencing the Information Systems Strategy Triangle). Employee satisfaction, particularly within the crucial IT sector, becomes paramount. Dissatisfied IT staff in MNCs can lead to higher absenteeism, increased turnover, and ultimately hinder overall business goals. In today's dynamic global environment, where MNCs rely heavily on technological solutions, fostering a positive work environment for IT professionals is vital for their, and the company's, continued success. This research investigates job satisfaction among IT professionals in Hyderabad's MNC landscape. The study utilizes primary data collected through structured questionnaires distributed to MNC IT employees. Due to non-uniform regional distribution, a convenience sample of 100 IT professionals in Hyderabad was chosen. The findings suggest that factors like workload, job security, and compensation significantly impact job satisfaction. A majority of respondents desired a more competitive remuneration package reflecting their responsibilities. Additionally, the study highlights the need for improved workplace culture within MNCs. Furthermore, the research proposes the development of a comprehensive model for job satisfaction within MNCs. This model would incorporate psychological, physical, and environmental factors to provide generalizable insights applicable to a broader range of IT professionals working in Hyderabad's MNC ecosystem.</em></p> 2024-07-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Site Suitability Analysis of Solid Waste Disposal in Aba South L.G.A, Abia State, Nigeria Using Geospatial Technology 2024-07-12T01:34:24+00:00 Ogbonna C. O. Emengini E.J. <p><em>Solid waste disposal is an important part of waste management system, which requires much attention to avoid environmental pollution and health problems. This study was aimed at carrying out site suitability for solid wastes disposal in Aba South LGA using geospatial techniques with the specific objectives of: identifying the spatial distribution of solid waste bin points in Aba South LGA, investigating the existing methods of solid wastes disposal and performing suitability analysis of solid wastes using the United Nations Environmental Protection (UNEP) 2005 guidelines. To achieve this, the field surveys were carried out to obtain the coordinate points of waste bins in the study area using the Extrex 10 Handheld GPS receiver. Geospatial techniques were used in carrying out site suitability analysis to determine and propose suitable sites for solid waste dumping. The ArcGIS 10.2 was used to carryout suitability analysis using buffer and overlay analysis. Results showed that there about thirty five (35) waste bins distributed within the commercials areas in Aba South LGA. These waste bins are concentrated around Enugu-Port-Harcourt Road and Port-Harcourt Roads. Enugu-Port-Harcourt has about six (6) waste bins while Port-Harcourt has two and Azikiwe Road have three (3) and two (2) waste bins respectively. From the overlay and multi-criteria analysis, a total of four (4) suitable sites were identified in Aba South LGA. Two suitable sites were found along Enugu-Port Harcourt Expressway with an area of 6.234 and 2.757 Hectares respectively while along Asa-Nnentu Road two (2) suites were equally identified with an area of 6.325 and 1.440 Hectares respectively. This brings to the suitable sites to a total area of 16.756 hectares and a 0.14% of the total landmass of Aba South LGA. This study recommends that: </em><em>Solid waste bin should be well distributed with Aba South LGA to reduce the menace of improper waste disposal along major roads and streets in the city, the Abia State Environmental Protection Agency (ASEPA) should ensure timely and regular disposal of solid wastes from waste bin collection points and there should be regular sensitization by the relevant bodies on the environmental and health implications of improper solid waste disposal.</em></p> 2024-07-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Centennial of Benoit Mandelbrot's Birth 2024-07-13T14:35:57+00:00 Celso Luís Levada Huemerson Maceti Rosangela Oliveira Colabone Ivan José Lautenschleguer Miriam de Magalhães O. Levada <p><em>Fractals are non-Euclidean geometric figures, which have a fine structure and high similarity, and the pattern found in fractals is called self-similarity. They are easily found in nature, for example in plants and clouds. They are highly complex, requiring more advanced mathematics and sophisticated technological tools. From the middle of the 19th and 20th centuries onwards, it was realized that it was not possible to use Euclidean geometry to describe all of nature, hence the first announcements of this new non-Euclidean geometry. The term "fractal" was created in 1975 by Benoît Mandelbrot and in fact this year 2024 the centenary of his birth is celebrated.</em></p> 2024-07-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Digital Topographic Mapping of the Faculty of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology at Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, Edo State 2024-07-16T16:42:16+00:00 Ekebuike, A.N. Oliha A.O. <p><em>This research focuses on the development of a digital topographic information system for the Faculty of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology at Benson Idahosa University (BIU), located in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. It aims to produce a comprehensive digital topographic map and an associated database, using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to enhance area planning and land information management. The methodology includes reconnaissance, data acquisition through primary and secondary sources, and advanced data processing techniques to create detailed maps and models. The results include a comprehensive topographic map showing the perimeter, topography, spot heights and infrastructure within the study area. These maps support diverse applications, from academic research to practical land management, promoting sustainable agricultural practices and effective resource utilization. The research underscores the significant technological advantages of integrating GIS into land management, providing valuable insights for both educational and operational purposes within the faculty.</em></p> 2024-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 A Comparative Study of Remote Sensing Techniques for Bathymetric Data Acquisition in Lokoja, Kogi State Nigeria 2024-07-16T16:54:24+00:00 Azubuike F. A Igbokwe, J.I. Igbokwe, E. C. Ezeh, F.C. <p><em>T</em><em>his study successfully performed a comparative study of remote sensing techniques for bathymetric data acquisition in Lokoja, Kogi state Nigeria. The following objectives were achieved by acquiring the multi bands of Landsat 8, Sentinel -2 and MODIS imagery used for bathymetric processing, acquiring remotely sensed images and extracting bathymetric information using different remote sensing techniques and comparatively analyzing the accuracies obtained between the remote sensing techniques and ground-based bathymetry. The methodology involved the acquisition of multi-sensor images, acquisition of sounding data, image preprocessing, water depth extraction models and validation using sounding data and correlation coefficient. The results revealed that the bathymetric mapping using Stumpf’s ratio on Landsat 8 imagery gave depth values ranging from 0 – 0.18m classified as very shallow, 0.18m – 0.43m classified as shallow, 0.43m – 0.55m classified as deep and 0.55m – 1m classified as very deep. Results from using Stumpf’s ratio on Sentinel-2 imagery gave depth values ranging from 0 – 0.23m classified as very shallow, 0.23m – 0.45m classified as shallow, 0.45m – 0.57m classified as deep and 0.57m – 1m classified as very deep. Results from using Stumpf’s ratio on MODIS gave depth values ranged from 0 – 0.12m classified as very shallow, 0.12m – 0.29m classified as shallow, 0.29m – 0.46m classified as deep and 0.46m – 58m classified as very deep. Also, the results from bathymetric mapping using Dierssen’s ratio on Landsat 8 imagery gave depth values ranging from 0 – 0.21m classified as very shallow, 0.21m – 0.38m classified as shallow, 0.38m – 0.58m classified as deep and 0.58m – 1m classified as very deep. Results from using Dierssen’s ratio on Sentinel-2 imagery gave depth values ranging from 0 – 0.25m classified as very shallow, 0.25m – 0.48m classified as shallow, 0.48m – 0.57m classified as deep and 0.57m – 1m classified as very deep. Results from using Dierssen’s ratio on MODIS gave depth values ranging from 0 – 0.13m classified as very shallow, 0.13m – 0.30m classified as shallow, 0.30m – 0.49m classified as deep and 0.49m – 1m classified as very deep. The very shallow zone covered an area of 562 m2, shallow covered an area of 679m2, deep zone covered an area of 972m2, while very deep covered an area of 175m2. The validation results using correlation coefficient and sounding data, revealed that Stumpf’s Band ratio performed better that Dierssen’s Band ratio. Therefore, Stumpf’s band ratio method is recommended as a viable method for satellite based bathymetric mapping as it performed better than Diersson’s band ratio when compared with the validation data.</em></p> 2024-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Business Owners' Empathy Level on Consumer’s Feedback on Social Media and Impact on Consumers' Purchasing 2024-07-16T17:40:02+00:00 Welou Dil B. Diaz Kevin L. Miñoza Mario Rami R. Pepito Renato Sagayno <p><em>The empathy level on consumer feedback measures the degree to which business owners understand and respond to customer concerns, emotions, and needs.</em> <em>This study investigated the role of business owners' empathy in responding to consumer feedback on social media and its impact on purchasing behavior in Cebu's food industry. Using a mixed-method approach with qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys, the study examined Food Trays, Coffee Stalls, and Cakes &amp; Pastries businesses, involving five brands from each business category and 150 consumer respondents. Findings revealed that empathetic business owners significantly boosted customer trust, satisfaction, and loyalty, fostering emotional connections that drove purchasing decisions. Quantitative data indicated strong empathy among business owners, with social, personal, psychological, and marketing factors notably influencing consumer behavior. The study concluded that empathy was crucial for business success, especially in leveraging social media interactions. Recommendations included empathy training, structured feedback systems, and empathy-driven marketing strategies, promoting a customer-centric culture. This research highlighted empathy's potential to enhance business performance, foster customer loyalty, and achieve sustainable growth in a competitive market.</em></p> 2024-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Characterization of Microdroplets through Image Processing: A Reinterpretation in Java 2024-07-16T17:51:13+00:00 Danilo Barreto Lima Santos Luciana Martins Pereira de Araújo Walter Duarte de Araújo Filho <p><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Computer Graphics and Image Processing are two areas that have stood out in the current scenario due to the considerable growth in technological applications, which has allowed the resolution of increasingly complex problems. In a simplified view, computer graphics (CG) seeks photorealistic images of computer-generated three-dimensional scenes, while digital image processing (PDI) attempts to reconstruct a three-dimensional scene from a real image obtained through a camera. In this sense, PDI seeks an opposite procedure to CG, analysis instead of synthesis, but both areas act on the same knowledge, which includes, among other aspects, the interaction between lighting and objects and projections of a three-dimensional scene in an image plane. The article aims to re-read a program developed for the treatment of digital images acquired using the Direct Laminar Incidence (DLI) technique developed for the quantification and characterization of microdroplets arising from nebulizer mist, for this purpose the program will be transcribed for the JAVA language, as it is a more widespread and easier to understand computational language today (</em><em>DOUGLAS A. LYON, 1999)</em><em>. It is expected that the new program can be used on other platforms, which previously would not have been possible due to it being in MATLAB.</em></p> 2024-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Examining the Relationship Between French and English-Speaking Skills Among Moroccan High School Students: A Correlational Study 2024-07-17T15:01:27+00:00 Imad Hamdanat <p><em>In a context of growing multilingual education, this study investigated the interplay between French and English speaking skills in Moroccan high school students through a quantitative analysis of standardized test scores and observation-based approach. While a weak negative correlation emerged, it lacked statistical significance, revealing no clear influence of French on English proficiency. This challenges the idea of a straightforward positive or negative relationship between these languages in this specific context. The null finding might be due to the students' developmental stage or limitations of standardized testing. Nonetheless, the broader benefits of multilingualism persist. Future research could explore how Morocco's multilingual approach fosters cognitive advantages and the strategies students use to navigate this rich linguistic environment, paving the way for a more comprehensive understanding of how Moroccan students acquire proficiency in multiple languages within their unique educational system.</em></p> 2024-07-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024