International Journal of Research <div>International Journal of Research (IJR) with ISSN 2348-6848 (Online) and 2348-795X (Print) is an international peer reviewed, internationally refereed, online, open-access journal published monthly. International Journal of Research (IJR) represents a revolution in scholarly journal publishing platform. A pioneering effort in liberal, open access publishing with fast and high quality peer review that brings journal publishing to the doorstep of every researcher and student. We believe that quality information should be free and accessible universally in this day and age. The ideology of an open-access journal is in being free for all and IJR will be free for all to read and share.</div> <div>Send papers to <strong></strong></div> <div><strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="homepageImage"><img src="" alt="Journal Homepage Image" width="158" height="106" /></div> <strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="additionalHomeContent"> <p>IJR takes special care to publish your research paper/article without any delay. Our journal aims to bring out the latent research talent and the professional work done by Scientists, Engineers, Architects, Planners, Practitioners, Administrators, Scholars, Graduate and Post Graduate students across all fields. This journal welcomes the submission of your research papers that meet our submission guidelines and the general criteria of significance and excellence in the field of Engineering, Science and Humanities. Submitted articles are peer reviewed by our panel of experts from various fields. All submitted papers are double-checked for plagiarized content. Please note that all submissions need to be previously unpublished.</p> </div> </div> en-US (D Bong) (De Bong) Mon, 04 Oct 2021 08:04:43 -0500 OJS 60 A Study on Financial Frauds in Banking Sector in India <p>In India, after independence banks are playing a crucial role in socio-economic progress of the country. The banking sector is dominant in India as it accounts for more than half the assets of the financial sector. Indian banks have been going through a fascinating phase through rapid changes brought about by financial sector reforms, which are being implemented in a phased manner. In a modern economy, banks are to be considered not as dealers in money but as the leaders of development. They play an important role in the mobilization of deposits and disbursement of credit to various sectors of the economy. The banking system reflects the economic health of the country. The strength of an economy depends on the strength and efficiency of the financial system, which in turn depends on a sound and solvent banking system.</p> <p>Owing to advancement in ICT, the sector besides serving to primary and secondary services, it also extended its services to third party products. However, with the increase in banks’ functionality there is a drastic increment in the frauds. In spite of various observations and regulations being introduced to reduce the frauds by the RBI, still it is observed that frauds are being committed. The present study focus on the number of frauds being committed bank wise, sector wise and its impact on the performance of the banks based on secondary data.</p> Dr. Sadyojathappa S Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 02 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Asvaghosha in the Context of Buddhism <p><em>Asvaghosha was a poet, Musician, scholar and dramatist. He was the contemporary of Kushan king Kanishka. The two well known works are: Buddha –carita and Saundarananda. At the end of these two poetic works, he clearly says. Arya Suvarnaksiputrsya Saketakasya bhikse acarya-bhadant Asvaghosaaya mahakaver Mahavadinah krtiriyam. This would mean Venerable mendicant and teacher Asvaghosa of Saketa,the son of suvarnakshi ,the great poet was perhaps converted to Buddhism by parsva who played an important role in the fourth Buddhist council held during the reign of Kanishka.</em></p> Dr Mushtaq Ahmad Tantray Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 02 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0500 THE HAPPINESS OF CAREER WOMEN WHO NURTURE CHILDREN WITHOUT HUSBANDS <p>In this study, the writer discusses about the happiness of career women parent who raised their children without their husbands who have been deceased. As we can see, a woman can role two figures, one as a mother and another role is as a career woman. The aim of this research are to find out the imaginary of the happiness itself, the affecting factors, and the processing of the happiness in a career woman who raised her child without husband assistance. The subjects of this study is the women who have such qualifications above. The techiques of collecting data in this study such as unstructured interviews and observations. The results of this research can be concluded that the affecting factors the happiness are from family or child, health and economy. Meanwhile , the imaginary of happiness are based on the affective and the cognitive aspects.</p> DIAN EKA SANTHY Copyright (c) 2021 Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Characterization of Water Soluble Inorganic Anions In Freefall Dust Collected From Rural Area Of R.S Pura Region, Jammu <p><em>Large scale industrialization and urbanization has led to the increasing levels of air pollution that alters the environment and human health etc. The study was conducted to evaluate the</em><em> chemical concentrations of major ions (F<sup>-</sup>, Cl<sup>-</sup>, NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>, SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup> etc.)</em><em> in dust samples collected from Government Schools in rural areas of Ranbir Singh Pura of Jammu region by using Ion exchange chromatography. </em><em>Chemical characterization of indoor settled dust is important from the health point of view. The result shows that indoor dust is an important carrier of toxic substances; therefore proper care must be taken to reduce the indoor dust in the school environments.</em></p> Nitasha Choudhary, Manisha Kanchru Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Comparative Evaluation between the Pump of Electrical Submersible (ESP) and the Lift of Gas (GL) for Production Optimization <p><em>The development of hydrocarbon from underground reservoirs to surface production and storage facilities through the wellbore is one of the most important aspects of the exploration and production industry. When a well is drilled, the reservoir fluid flows naturally with the reservoir's primary energy, but when this is not possible, an artificial lift system is built to assist the flow by lowering the hydrostatic pressure within the output tubing. This research compares gas lift (GL) and electrical submersible pump (ESP) for MAJNON 1, well production optimization to determine the best choice for the field. &nbsp;PROSPER software was used to create a natural flowing event, as well as GL and ESP simulations. The results revealed that the ESP system produces 4645.9 STB/day more than the natural flowing case, while the GL produces 785.7 STB/day more than the natural flowing case. ESP also has a&nbsp; &nbsp;higher output rate than GL (3860.2 STB/day, 85.54%). When it comes to the economy, ESP had the highest overall profit (77.46%), with a difference of 22.54% and 26.93% between the GL and natural flowing cases, respectively.&nbsp; However, due to other factors such as water cuts and the replacement of failed pumps, the GL system was chosen for proper field output optimization. Compared to the ESP, which had the highest output capacity, the gas lift was chosen for the MAJNON1 well due to the readily compressed gas availability, higher life expectancy, and lower operating cost.</em></p> Talib Sabah Hussein, Ameer Hasan Hamzah Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0500 SOCIAL REFORMERS, CASTE AND CONVERSION <p><em>In this paper, the attempt is to demonstrate how central the question of caste and conversion is in the agenda of national-level social reformers and their movements. A number of different threads feed into the negative mindset on the question of conversion. Many reformers, liberal humanists, modernists and nationalists acknowledge the fact that caste discrimination and the practice of untouchablility are the root cause for the conversion. Yet they have not explored how this problem actually played out in recent Indian history.&nbsp; What follows is a review of the major schools of arguments on the issue of conversion. We have focused particularly on the arguments of the Social Reformers. It is popularly believed that these three schools of thought constitute, and in fact cover, the principal discussion on the issue of conversion.&nbsp; In subsequent paper we hope to show that there is a critical lacuna in this body of work. . Therefore, the paper begins with an analysis of how the major social reformers such as Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Dayananda Saraswati, and Vivekananda treated the question of conversion and caste.&nbsp; The discussion of these figures also covers the role of two organizations that have been influential and whose voice has been authoritative in the mainstream understanding of the conversion question: the Brahmo Samaj and Arya Samaj. </em></p> Dr. B. VENKAT RAO Copyright (c) 2021 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0500 LANGUAGE POLICY AND ELT <p><em>This paper examines the role of language planning and policy in the career of English language teaching across the latter half of the twentieth century. It looks at scholarship that has connected shifts in policy on language and education to the socio-political and disciplinary contexts in which it was made. The paper draws on research on language planning in plurilingual contexts to see how this has been capitalized from the peripheries.</em></p> Dr. ASMA RASHEED Copyright (c) 2021 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Basics of Data Science <p><em>In this present era of big data Hadoop, cloud and other frameworks are available for huge data storage, now the concentration is on huge data processing. With the help of machine learning tools, techniques and algorithms, huge data processing can be done and AI can be implemented in machines and make the machines to function like human brain intelligence. </em></p> <p><em>With the huge rise in data, there is a continual requirement for analyzing such a huge amount of data. Data Science concept can handle this data and develop useful machine learning models that predict the future results. Data Science is emerging multidisciplinary field with roots in mathematics, statistics, and computer science. Data science can be applied to wide range of applications such as business, finance, healthcare, transportation etc., as it can perform data extraction, data analysis, data visualization, and also manages huge amounts of data. The main objective of Data Scientists is to recognize and utilize relevant and important insights from data, so that it can be helpful for organizations in taking smarter decisions. During this process, different tools and methods to identify redundant patterns and hidden knowledge within the data can be used. Most efficient algorithms, powerful hardware and programming systems to solve the data related problems are also used. </em></p> <p><em>This paper focuses on basics of Data Science and its implementation with a simple case study. Understanding and implementing data science can upgrade individual knowledge, skills and business. </em></p> Dr. D. Hema Latha, Azmath Mubeen, Dr. D. Rama Krishna Reddy Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 12 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0500 CAPITAL EMPLOYED EFFICIENCY AND ECONOMIC VALUED ADDED OF QUOTED COMPANIES <p><em>This study examine the relationship between Capital Employed Efficiency and Economic Value Added of quoted service firms in Nigeria from </em><em>2010-2019</em><em>. Ex-Post Facto research design was adopted for the study. Data were sourced from annual report and accounts of the sampled quoted service firms, particularly the comprehensive income statement and statement of financial positions of these companies as well as their respective notes to the accounts for the period. The analyses applied the data collected from publications of the Nigerian stock exchange (NSE) and the annual report and accounts of the sample quoted companies. Panel Least Square (PLS) Regression Analysis was employed to test the hypothesis. The study revealed that</em> <em>which states that there is a significant positive relationship between Capital Employed Efficiency and Economic Value Added of quoted service firms in Nigeria at 5% level of significance. On the premise of this study recommended that firms should enhance their capital employed efficiency by ensuring that capital is allocated to the most deserving activities of the corporation as this will have bigger impact on overall firm performance.</em></p> Okoye, Nwamaka J.F., Ezekwesili, Tochukwu P. Copyright (c) 2021 Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0500