International Journal of Research https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr <div>International Journal of Research (IJR) with ISSN 2348-6848 (Online) and 2348-795X (Print) is an international peer reviewed, internationally refereed, online, open-access journal published monthly. International Journal of Research (IJR) represents a revolution in scholarly journal publishing platform. A pioneering effort in liberal, open access publishing with fast and high quality peer review that brings journal publishing to the doorstep of every researcher and student. We believe that quality information should be free and accessible universally in this day and age. The ideology of an open-access journal is in being free for all and IJR will be free for all to read and share.</div> <div>Send papers to <strong>ijr@ijrjournal.com</strong></div> <div><strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="homepageImage"><img src="https://journals.pen2print.org/public/journals/1/homepageImage_en_US.png" alt="Journal Homepage Image" width="158" height="106" /></div> <strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="additionalHomeContent"> <p>IJR takes special care to publish your research paper/article without any delay. Our journal aims to bring out the latent research talent and the professional work done by Scientists, Engineers, Architects, Planners, Practitioners, Administrators, Scholars, Graduate and Post Graduate students across all fields. This journal welcomes the submission of your research papers that meet our submission guidelines and the general criteria of significance and excellence in the field of Engineering, Science and Humanities. Submitted articles are peer reviewed by our panel of experts from various fields. All submitted papers are double-checked for plagiarized content. Please note that all submissions need to be previously unpublished.</p> </div> </div> en-US ijr@ijrjournal.com (D Bong) ijr@ijrjournal.com (De Bong) Sat, 06 Apr 2024 05:26:43 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Supply Chain Management and Operational Performance of Unilever Indonesia https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1325 <p><em>Unilever, is a multinational company which sells consumer goods such as beverages, culinary items, cleaning supplies, and personal hygiene items. Unilever NV, located in Rotterdam, and Unilever PLC, based in London, make up the dual-listed company Unilever. The company is among the top global providers of food and beverage, personal care, and beauty products. Its products are sold in more than 190 countries and it serves 2.5 billion people every day. This paper explores how supply chain affect the operational performance of Unilever Indonesia. A number of systems are thoughtfully created to provide outcomes that are both efficient and successful. Beginning with the first raw material supply, the product is produced, then it is distributed till it is received by customers. Through the implementation of strategic performance management techniques, Unilever is able to manufacture goods that are customized to meet the demands of its customers. The strategy used by Unilever highlights how crucial a well-thought-out and well- implemented supply chain strategy is to success.</em></p> Nicholas Gerry, Lena Ellitan Copyright (c) 2024 https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1325 Sat, 06 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation of Mesenchymal Cells and their Relationship with Blood Vessels Formation at Early Stages of Gestation in the Human Fetus https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1326 <p><em>Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the areas occupied by &nbsp;mesenchymal cells and the areas of blood vessels for the same stage of gestation. In the same way, the lengths and widths of the mesenchymal cells grouped around the vascularization and the same isolated cells were measured and compared. Materials and method: </em><em>Tissue of the temporal region of 10 aborted human fetuses at 12 weeks of gestation was removed in 10 cubic millimeter blocks. The blocks were embedded in paraffin, and these paraffin-embedded blocks were sectioned serially in sagittal planes 6 μm wide with a rotatory microtome. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used in each of the histological sections for detect or not the presence of mesenchymal cells and vascularization respectively. The area occupied by blood vessels and mesenchymal cells was measured and compared with the use of image j software. The student's T-test was used to compare the areas occupied by &nbsp;mesenchymal cells and the areas of vascularization. Similarly, the same statistical test was used to compare the lengths and width between cells that occupied colonies or were isolated. Conclusion: mesenchymal cells occupied a larger area than blood vessels zones. The width of the isolated cells was considerably larger. However, the comparison of cell lengths between isolated cells and those occupying colonies did not show marked differences. The isolated cells were observed close to areas of osteoid tissue.</em></p> Wilfredo Molina Wills Copyright (c) 2024 https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1326 Sat, 06 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 India’s Role in UN Peacekeeping in the Democratic Republic of Congo https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1327 <p><em>Aftermath the signing of the Lusaka Peace Accord in July 1997, the civil war in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the neighbouring countries turned into a more serious dimension. Former allies of Laurent Kabila turned against him. President Laurent Kabila was assassinated in January 2001. His son Joseph Kabila succeeded and the succession brought hopes for positive changes. However, the war was drawn into full scale war: Africa’s Second World War. The United Nations started sending observers followed by peacekeepers. India sent police personnel, military experts and troops numbering 7072 by March 2015 out of a world total of 10654. Indian peacekeepers were mostly concentrated in the storm centres of intense fighting. The following article is an evaluation of Indian peacekeepers in the DRC.)</em></p> Konsam Jenny Copyright (c) 2024 https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1327 Sat, 06 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of School Communication on Teachers’ Job Performance in Senior Secondary Schools in Suleja, Niger State https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1329 <p><em>The study assessed the </em><em>impact of school communication on teachers’ job performance in Senior secondary schools in Suleija, Niger State</em><em>. The study was guided by two research questions with corresponding hypotheses</em><em>. descriptive survey research design was adopted in the study. The population of this study consisted of 2605 teachers. The sample size of the study consisted of 568 respondents. The instrument used for data collection was the ‘Questionnaire on the Impact of Communication on Teacher Job Performance (QICTJP)’. The instrument yielded the validity index of 0.70. The reliability index of 0.72 was obtained. Descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation were used for data analysis while the Analysis of Variance was used for testing the hypothesis. The findings of the study showed that there is a significant impact of upward communication on teachers’ job performance in senior secondary schools in Suleija, Niger State and there is a significant impact of downward communication on teachers’ job performance in senior secondary schools in Suleija, Niger State. One of the recommendations of the study was that principals of secondary schools in Suleija, Niger State</em><em> should be periodically subjected to series of training through workshops, conferences and seminars to enable them acquire the useful skills and knowledge needed to promote upward communication in the school system.</em></p> Gloria Olachukwu Eziuzo, Anthonia Nwabugo Ani, Chika Nnoye Eziamaka Copyright (c) 2024 https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1329 Thu, 11 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Human and Financial Resource Management: Tools for Effective Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education in Universities in Nigeria https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1330 <p><em>Entrepreneurship education is one aspect of Nigeria education system that is expected to make the citizens live a functional and fulfilling life after graduation. This paper is on human and financial resource management: tools for effective implementation of entrepreneurship education in universities in Nigeria.The paper looked at the general concept of entrepreneurship education, its importance to both students and the society. The objectives of entrepreneurship education as enshrined in the national policy on education (2013) were highlighted, the concept of human and material resources were also discussed. The paper discussed in details two key areas such as; influence of human resources management on the implementation of entrepreneurship education in universities in Nigeria and influence of financial resource management on the implementation of entrepreneurship education in universities in Nigeria. The paper concluded that the presence of human resources alone cannot make entrepreneurship education a success; relevant financial resources are much needed to compliment the human resources. Therefore, the provision of both categories of resources in our universities in the right quality and quantity will make the required difference in terms of implementation. It was recommended that; all the stakeholders concerned with the implementation of entrepreneurship education should work relentlessly and collaboratively to ensure that the right thing is done in terms of proper provision of human and financial resources for the programme and there should be regular review of the existing material resources for entrepreneurship education in terms of relevance in line with the dynamics of change ant time.</em></p> Rev. Sr. Dr. Nwosu, Ogochukwu Honorata Copyright (c) 2024 https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1330 Thu, 11 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Multicultural Diversity and Theoretical Study https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1331 <p><em>The concept of intercultural diversity encompasses all measures that address social responses to current difficulties, whether at the national or organizational level. Multiculturalism and diversity encompass a wide range of elements, including gender, race/ethnicity, language, sexual orientation, age, spiritual orientation, physical ability, knowledge, skills, socioeconomic level, geographical location, and others. This research paper will therefore strive to review the literature on numerous elements of intercultural diversity. These include the definition of multicultural diversity, a brief theoretical framework of diversity, the aspects of multicultural diversity, the Impacts of Multicultural Diversity on Organizational Work Groups, key factors that are important in determining how successful individuals will be in interacting with a changing society, and finally, the challenges involved when working in a multicultural organization.</em> <em>Power dynamics within groups, merging diversity of opinion and approaches, real and perceived tokenism, the challenge of holding all individuals throughout the organization accountable for achieving a positive multicultural environment, and communication challenges within a multicultural organization were among the issues discussed. </em></p> E. Gangadhar Copyright (c) 2024 https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1331 Thu, 11 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Gender on Teachers’ Contribution to Covid-19 Anxiety Level and Compliance to Preventive Protocols Among Secondary School Teachers in Delta South Senatorial District https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1332 <p><em>The study investigated the relationship of Covid-19 Anxiety and Compliance with preventive protocols among teachers in Delta South Senatorial District given to the fact that people resisted covid-19 compliance guidelines of the Delta State government to curtail the dreaded virus. Seven research questions guided the study and seven corresponding hypothesis were tested. The correlational research design was employed in the study. The population for the study comprised all secondary school teachers in Delta South Senatorial District. The population size was 1,989. A Sample of 320 teachers was drawn to make up the respondents using the multi-stage technique, which combined cluster, stratified, and random sampling techniques. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the instruments were determined and found adequate for use. Factor analysis and Principle Components analysis were used to test for the Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients and it yielded a coefficient of 0.837 and 0.717 for Covid-19 Anxiety Rating Scale and Compliance to Protocols Rating Scale respectively. Data collected were analysed using Pearson’s Moment Correlation to answer the research questions and regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the analysis showed among others that; there was low level of compliance of teachers with low and moderate covi-19 preventive protocols. The study recommended that effect at enforcing compliance should be to intensify campaigns on the disastrous effects of Covid-19 and if possible, to expose teachers either through videos or life experience to infected persons with the ultimate aim of increasing the anxiety and fear of contacting the disease.</em></p> Uche Prince ODILI , A.E. Oghounu Copyright (c) 2024 https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1332 Thu, 11 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Dimensions and Implementation of Development Programmes and Job Performance of Teachers in Private Secondary Schools in Delta State https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1333 <p><em>This study examined the dimensions and implementations of development programmes in private secondary schools in Delta State. Five research questions guided the study. The study adopted the correlational method of ex-post facto research design. The population of the study comprised 6,512 teachers in private secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. The sample size for the study comprised 326 teachers. The sampling techniques that were used for the study are proportionate stratified and convenience sampling techniques. The instrument that was used to collect data in this study is questionnaire. The face and content validities of the questionnaire were determined by the researcher’s supervisor and two other lecturers in the Department of Educational Management and Foundations. Cronbach alpha reliability index was used to determine the internal consistency of the items in the instrument. The coefficients include Stages of Development Programmes = 0.80; Training Needs = 0.94; Location of Training = 0.80; and Timing of Training = 0.86. Mean and standard deviation was used to answer the research questions. The findings of the study revealed that the dimensions of development programmes practiced in private secondary schools include stages of development, training needs, location and timing of training. The finding revealed a high level of implementation for each of these dimensions. The study recommended amongst others that private secondary schools should implement a robust system for continuous monitoring and evaluation of development programmes.</em></p> Ogwu, E. I., Egwunyenga, E. J. Copyright (c) 2024 https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1333 Thu, 11 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of Logistics Information System on Customer Satisfaction https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1334 <p style="line-height: 115%; margin: 12.0pt 0cm 12.0pt 0cm;"><em><span style="font-size: 13.0pt; line-height: 115%; color: black;">This article aims to examine the impact of the Logistics information system on customer satisfaction. Quantitative analysis is based on data taken from a survey of individuals and businesses operating in Vietnam that have used Logistics information systems. Research results show that the groups of factors that constitute the quality of Logistics information systems such as usefulness, reliability, ease of use and flexibility have an impact on customer satisfaction. These research results have important implications for the practice of Logistics information systems of businesses, and can serve as a basis for proposing solutions to perfect and improve the quality of Logistics information systems to the level of customer satisfaction when using.</span></em></p> Nguyen Thi Mai Anh, Dao Quynh Chi, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Binh, Pham Thi Thi, Nguyen Thi Hong Ngoc Copyright (c) 2024 https://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/1334 Sat, 20 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000