International Journal of Research <div>International Journal of Research (IJR) with ISSN 2348-6848 (Online) and 2348-795X (Print) is an international peer reviewed, internationally refereed, online, open-access journal published monthly. International Journal of Research (IJR) represents a revolution in scholarly journal publishing platform. A pioneering effort in liberal, open access publishing with fast and high quality peer review that brings journal publishing to the doorstep of every researcher and student. We believe that quality information should be free and accessible universally in this day and age. The ideology of an open-access journal is in being free for all and IJR will be free for all to read and share.</div> <div>Send papers to <strong></strong></div> <div><strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="homepageImage"><img src="" alt="Journal Homepage Image" width="158" height="106" /></div> <strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="additionalHomeContent"> <p>IJR takes special care to publish your research paper/article without any delay. Our journal aims to bring out the latent research talent and the professional work done by Scientists, Engineers, Architects, Planners, Practitioners, Administrators, Scholars, Graduate and Post Graduate students across all fields. This journal welcomes the submission of your research papers that meet our submission guidelines and the general criteria of significance and excellence in the field of Engineering, Science and Humanities. Submitted articles are peer reviewed by our panel of experts from various fields. All submitted papers are double-checked for plagiarized content. Please note that all submissions need to be previously unpublished.</p> </div> </div> en-US (D Bong) (De Bong) Thu, 02 Jun 2022 19:48:40 -0500 OJS 60 ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT REDUCTION IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA <p><em>The study investigated entrepreneurship education and unemployment reduction in Anambra State, Nigeria. The study was guided by four research questions and four null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population of the study comprised all 1,915 NCE and Bed Economics students of the African Thinkers Community. Stratified random sampling technique was used to draw 345 students for the study. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire. The instrument was duly validated by three experts and subjected to reliability test using the test re-test method which yielded a coefficient value of 0.90. The data collected were analyzed using the mean to answer the research questions and chi-square to test the hypotheses. The findings of the study revealed among others that the causes of unemployment among graduates of Economics in Anambra State include: lack of entrepreneurial skills demanded by employers, high cost of living, low industrialization, ack of social amenities and over-population. It also found that entrepreneurship education equips the graduates with vocational skills like sowing, cake making, soap making, designing barbing; it helps one to start up a personal business; it helps provides the graduates the techniques for creating self-employment venture. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that government should regularly train and retrain teachers that teach entrepreneurship education through workshops, conferences seminars, study leaves to enable them to acquire marketable skills for the achievement of the aims and objectives of the programme.</em></p> Uju, Ughamadu , Ogbaji, N.M., Nwanne, E.I., Obionu, U.A. Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 MECHANICAL AND DURABILITY PROPERTIES OF GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE USING GRANITE WASTE <p><em>Construction industry is exploring Green-concrete to reduce the use of concrete mixture (OPC). Global warming is caused by the CO2 emissions during cement production. Geopolymer concrete (GPC) has been put into practice as a replacement of conventional concrete. Granite waste is one of the industrial waste produced by the mining activity. Later, granite waste deposits become a problem for the environment. For the case of reducing granite waste, it must be used as a binder or fine aggregate in concrete. In the present analysis, fly ash in the range of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% is partially replaced by granite waste. Identify the effect of granite waste at 7 and 28 days of age on mechanical properties such as compressive strength and split-tensile strength in the initial stage. In the final stage the effect of granite waste has been studied at different ages on durability properties such as Sulphate attack, chloride attack, acid attack, Sorptivity, water absorption and carbonation. The non-destructive tests such as the Rebound hammer and the UPV tests were carried out at 28 days. Micro- structure of all mixes is studied by Electron Microscopy Scanning (SEM)</em></p> Desharam Raghavender Goud, KOLLA NAAG SREENIVASA RAO Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 02 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 CONSTRUCTION OF A TOOL TO MEASURE COMPETENCY IN TAMIL LANGUAGE AMONG HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS <p><em>Language plays a vital part in the life of a human being. Language facilitates comprehension of surrounding, learning concepts and achieving several skills. Extensive language skills in a child them to express themselves and developing their thinking capacity. Additionally, this language cultivates confidence and a sense of self-worth. The purpose of the paper is construct and validate a tool to measure competency in Tamil language of higher secondary school students. As there is no Tamil Language Questionnaire to assess the competency Tamil language among higher secondary school students an attempt has been made to construct in new tool by the investigator.</em></p> Mrs. S. JAYANTHI, Dr. T. TAMIZHSELVAN Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 03 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Causes and Repair Techniques for Distresses in Concrete Pavements <p><em>Concrete pavements are designed on the basis of fatigue of concrete, taking traffic and environmental factors into considerations. It is expected that if designed properly, concrete pavements should not suffer from any major form of distress and cracking. Global and limited Indian experience on design, construction and performance of concrete pavements have shown widely different performance of such pavements. Some have performed extremely well and have served beyond their design service life. Some have shown severe signs of distress and premature failure. Some distresses especially related to joints are bound to occur during the service life of the pavements but sometimes it may happen that concrete pavements crack even before its opening to traffic. An engineer who is concerned with the design, construction and maintenance of rigid pavement, must be able not only to evaluate fully the factors that affect the design of pavement but it is also necessary to have an understanding of types of pavement distresses and their causes. In particular, it is important to ascertain whether certain types of distress are progressive, leading to eventual failure of the road, or whether they are non-progressive. Timely repair of distressed pavements with proper technique and material may arrest further deterioration. The paper will discuss different types and causes of distresses of concrete pavements. Repair techniques such as full depth repair, slab replacement, crack sealing, joint resealing etc, which have recently been adopted at some of the project sites will also be discussed in detail. </em></p> Rajbir Singh, Sachin Dhull Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Modelling and Predicting Cyber Hacking Breaches <p>Contrasted with the past, improvements in PC and correspondence innovations have given broad and propelled changes. The use of new innovations give incredible advantages to people, organizations, and governments, be that as it may, messes some up against them. For instance, the protection of significant data, security of put away information stages, accessibility of information and so forth. Contingent upon these issues, digital fear based oppression is one of the most significant issues in this day and age. Digital fear, which made a great deal of issues people and establishments, has arrived at a level that could undermine open and nation security by different gatherings, for example, criminal association, proficient people and digital activists. Along these lines, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) has been created to maintain a strategic distance from digital assaults.</p> Naga Varshith Gate, Munipati Pradeep Kumar , R. Vara Prasad , M. Sri Lakshmi Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Detection of Cyber Attack in Network using Machine Learning Techniques <p style="margin: 0cm; line-height: normal;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">Contrasted with the past, improvements in PC and correspondence innovations have given broad and propelled changes. The use of new innovations give incredible advantages to people, organizations, and governments, be that as it may, messes some up against them. For instance, the protection of significant data, security of put away information stages, accessibility of information and so forth. Contingent upon these issues, digital fear based oppression is one of the most significant issues in this day and age. Digital fear, which made a great deal of issues people and establishments, has arrived at a level that could undermine open and nation security by different gatherings, for example, criminal association, proficient people and digital activists. Along these lines, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) has been created to maintain a strategic distance from digital assaults. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; line-height: normal;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">&nbsp;</span></p> C Nithish Kumar, Sepuri Lokesh Kumar, R. Vara Prasad , M. Sri Lakshmi Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Network Traffic Analysis Using Machine Learning <p>Stood out from the past, upgrades in PC and correspondence developments have given wide and pushed changes. The utilization of new advancements gives fantastic benefits to individuals, associations, and states, nevertheless, messes face them. For example, the insurance of critical information, security of taken care of data stages, availability of data, etc. Dependent upon these issues, advanced dread based mistreatment is one of the main issues nowadays. Computerized dread, which made a ton of issues for individuals and foundations, has shown up at a level that could subvert open and public safety by various social affairs, for instance, criminal affiliations, capable individuals, and advanced activists. Thusly, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) have been made to avoid advanced attacks</p> Tamtam Sunil Goud, Gorla Yaswanth, Shaik Sohail Ahammed, Sirisha Kamsali, M. Sri Lakshmi Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Identifying Of Fake Profiles Across Online Social Networks By Using Neural Network <p>In seeing the present condition, online social networks are engaging with the majority of the people. From child to adult, all are spending a considerable time on these platforms either by exchanging information or making efficient communication with others. But nowadays, these social networking sites are suffering from a lot of fake accounts in taking advantage of vulnerabilities, either taking the benefits or targeting accounts attempting cybercrimes.</p> Tamtam Sunil Goud, Gorla Yaswanth, Shaik Sohail Ahammed, Sirisha Kamsali, M. Sri Lakshmi Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Real Time Gas Monitoring Using Wire Less Sensor Network Underground Coal Mines <p>The security of excavators is a main issue in this day and age. Diggers' wellbeing is hurt by an assortment of variables, including unsound and off-kilter secret exercises and abnormal burdens, weighty instruments and hardware, harmful residue and synthetic substances, gas or residue blasts, inappropriate utilization of explosives, gas inebriations, imploding of mine designs, electrical consumes, fires, flooding, rock tumbles from rooftops and side dividers, and mistakes from failing or inappropriately utilized mining gear. Canaries and little creatures were utilized in the past to distinguish gases, yet they didn't uncover the real condition of the mines, in this manner mine security was not guaranteed. Thus, an observing framework in light of the ZigBee remote sensor network innovation is required. The observing framework is separated into two sections: the sensor unit and the checking unit. The sensor unit will be introduced underneath, and the observing unit will be introduced over the mines, where checking will occur. The Sensor unit is first introduced in the mine's subsurface region. Where info is gotten from sensors like the MQ-2 sensor for methane (CH4), the MQ-136 sensor for hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and the MQ-5 sensor for flammable gases. The Microcontroller Module then, at that point, analyzes them to their limit esteem, and assuming the worth is more prominent than the edge esteem, the Buzzer starts to ring, while information is shown in the Display module and shipped off the Monitor unit's Wireless Communication Module, for example end gadget or facilitator, by means of the Wireless Communication Module of the Sensor unit, for example switch. Subsequently, the exploration might have the option to help the diggers in getting break from any setbacks, consequently saving their lives. The contraption is equipped for a wide assortment of systems administration capacities. The data may likewise be put something aside for future exploration. With a value scope of Rs. 6,500 to 7,000/ - , the device is likewise solid and cost effective.</p> Gundaboina Karthik , Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 A Synopsis Of Longwall Mining Technology <p>For 60-70 years, the alleged "Longwall Mining System" has been utilized effectively in coal mining in the United States, Australia, and Germany. Those are, as a general rule, underground coal mining frameworks with mine doors that are quickly associated with the surface. At the Asian landmass and India, Telangana state has utilized the longwall mining innovation at Adriyala longwall project and GDK 10A grade in Singareni collieries restricted. Thus, it's basic to comprehend a contextual investigation of the longwall mining method, since longwall digging as of now represents just 2% of India's underground coal yield, however it's supposed to develop to 40% by 2020. Mining is turning out to be more significant in the contemporary world for the extraction of fundamental minerals. So we go for open cast mining and underground mining. Mineral accessibility at shallow profundity is becoming remarkable as the extraction rate increments step by step. Along these lines, to arrive at higher profundities, we should take on present day mining processes, one of which is longwall mining. In this methodology, the entire supporting framework, for example chock safeguards, is finished utilizing power upholds, and the whole face is all around upheld, rather than the customary mining strategy. This strategy of slashing coal utilizing a shearer dodges the requirement for penetrating and impacting. The coal is moved from the face to the surface utilizing stage loaders and transports.</p> Dadi. Saicharan, Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Analysis and Assessment of Different Pollutions around Coal Mining Area <p>The rising seriousness of nursery and harmful gas discharges from naturally risky stacked coal mineshaft squander dumps has provoked scholastics and business to put a more noteworthy accentuation on ecological effect evaluation. A one-year air contamination observing examination was completed the inorganic synthetic compounds in particulate matter with a breadth of under 2.5 m were estimated utilizing FTIR spectroscopy. PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO were concentrated on as far as their geological and transient circulation highlights. To start, the review found that the poison appropriation in the coal mineshaft burn through district is non-homogeneous in both existence. Second, wind speed, relative moistness, temperature, and precipitation were displayed to have significant effect on air contamination dispersal. The scattering of impurities was hampered by stable cools, which delayed the defilement cycle. At long last, SO2 and NO2 are tracked down in huge sums in the air around coalfields. Coal mining-related activities and progressing mine flames are the essential drivers of such significant levels. This exploration will add to the information and translation of the contamination source by giving helpful and careful data.</p> Badde Hari Babu, Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Nonel Blasting in Mines <p>Affecting is a significant piece of the mining framework, and it's one of the most practical stone departure processes for both surface and underground mines. The effect of mining undertakings is one of the most difficult worries in the mining area. In enormous scope mining, rock break is urgent on the grounds that it straightforwardly impacts the expenses of entering, affecting, discretionary affecting, and crushing, as well as the general expense of creation. The assessment takes a gander at the effect of the beginning gadget on the climate and get together expenses. To accomplish the investigation's objectives, field assessments and information assortment were utilized. Furthermore, an assortment of data on influencing engineered substances and embellishments utilized in impacting obligations was ordered. The flyrock, upheaval, and vibration made while striking utilizing are still up in the air to be humble, rather than the wellbeing wire and electrical strategies. It has additionally been found that beginning with NONEL further develops shooting capability while bringing down affecting costs.</p> Chadhiram Arun, Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Gasses Emission Underground Coal Mines And Its Controlling Measures <p>The discharges of ozone harming substances (GHGs) at the provincial level were determined. "Power creation," "Modern cycles and items use," "Horticulture, ranger service, and other land use choices," and "Squanders" were completely assigned as wellsprings of ozone depleting substance emanations. The chance of bringing down GHG outflows in the "Power age" area by repeating coal mineshaft methane (CMM) handling innovation in secluded kettle houses and gas-creating holder type stations for warm and electric power creation is explored</p> Boorla Srikanth , Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Planning And Design Of Safety Management Plan In Underground Coal Mines <p>To satisfy energy needs, coal mining is especially essential in most emerging countries. Notwithstanding, the mining business is plagued with issues, the most serious of which is the security of diggers. The underground mining climate, specifically, is extremely muddled. Harmful gases, for example, methane and carbon monoxide are continually delivered in coal mineshafts. At the point when the convergence of these gases surpasses the security limit, mineworkers' wellbeing and lives are endangered. Thus, such qualities should be persistently checked. To achieve the security perspectives, this study offers a mine wellbeing observing framework in view of ARM7 and ZigBee. With the guide of a sensor hub structure, the framework accumulates different natural qualities from an underground dig and sends them for handling. Assuming the work space turns out to be too serious, the alert messages might be utilized to make control moves and keep up with wellbeing necessities. The framework has various advantages concerning checking, controlling mine result, and security the board, as well similar to a low-power stage.</p> Boga Rakesh , Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 An Insight On Continues Miner With Shuttle Car In Development Mines <p>Rooftop blasting machines with covering computer based intelligence drapes have been displayed to safeguard diggers from reparable residue, lessening overexposure. The compartments of transport vehicles are one more famous use for covering air shades. Mine ventilation rates in blend with transport vehicle cable car speeds were among the issues tended to in making the plan of shade air drapes for transport vehicles. As per a review done by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in a focal Appalachian profound coal mineshaft, taxi velocities might outperform 182 m/min (600 fpm). Earlier exploration and research facility testing uncovered that appropriately shielding an excavator at high air speeds is trying because of the covering air drape's spotless air being not able to enter the high-speed mine air. The residue focuses to which a van vehicle administrator was uncovered were recorded, as well as the air speeds experienced by the administrator, involving a keep vane anemometer in this examination. The greatest degree of reparable residue openness, 2.22 mg/m3, was recorded while the van vehicle was stacking at the constant digger, with a typical velocity of 48 m/min (157 fpm). With a typical speed of 62 m/min, the trimming administrator was presented to 0.77 mg/m3 reparable residue (203 fpm). Since the greater part of an administrator's residue openness happens at air speeds more slow than 61 m/min, this exploration proposes that a shelter air shade framework might be built as far as possible an administrator's openness to reparable residue by providing clean air to the administrator (200 fpm).</p> Beerkula Prashanth, Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Application of Controlled Blasting in Urban Residential Structures <p>This article examines the controlled shooting unearthing of a 19500 m2 region in granitic hard rock to a profundity of 10 m to fit the establishment for a 75 m tall, 16-story business structure in Bengaluru, India. The principal objective was to uncover granitic hard rock close to existing and under development private structures (10 m) (60 m). In any case, trail blasts were directed 50 meters from existing private structures. Shock tubes were utilized to begin shoots to restrict the most extreme charge per postponement and air overpressure from trunk lines. Uncovering was done in the shooting zone in five separate destinations, each at an alternate separation from the structures. Controlled impacting in metropolitan conditions involves keeping flyrock, vibrations, and air overpressure levels beneath legitimate cutoff points, yet the main contributing perspective is human discernment. The human response to vibrations, as well as the underlying reaction, were researched. Impact plans were altered site-explicitly, and ground vibration levels were ceaselessly observed to guarantee that the powers remained beneath the limitations. The impacting locale was suppressed with an adequate amount of 1.1t elastic impacting mats, and the flyrock was kept inside 10 meters of the impacting region. The elastic mats were viewed as fruitful in diminishing the flyrock, however they likewise fundamentally brought down the air overpressure levels. Around 80000 m3 of hard rock was effectively dug with no bad things to say since the vibrations were kept beneath the occupants' insight level instead of the designs' contagious level from the neighbors/inhabitants.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jangili Praveen Kumar, Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 The Relevance of Vocational Education for Inmates in Monrovia Central Prison, Liberia <p><em>This study determined the relevance of vocational education for inmates in Monrovia Central Prison. The study was guided by the following hypothesis; H1: there is a significant relationship between prison overcrowding and vocational education of inmates in Monrovia Central Prison, Liberia. The study adopted a cross sectional case study design. The study population was 1032 from which a sample size of 279 respondents was used for the study. A self- administered questionnaire was the major instrument used for data collection gathering quantitative information regarding the study variables.&nbsp; Key informant interview guide was designed and administered to key informants to capture qualitative information. The study results revealed that there is a positive and weak relationship between prison overcrowding and vocational education at Monrovia Central Prison, Liberia. The researcher concluded that there is appositive statistical significant but weak relationship between prison overcrowding and Vocational Education in Monrovia Central Prison. The researcher recommended that the government of Liberia should protect prisoners’ physical and mental health. That is to say: the time prisoners spend out of their cells may be increased, with maximum possible time spent in the open air. The Inspector General of Prison Service should ensure that the prison conditions are conducive for proper and full implementation of the rehabilitation programmes like vocational education to the inmates, more learning facilities should be provided and even more well-trained professionals to train the inmates</em></p> Dairus Weah Geegbe, Dr. Aloysius Tumukunde Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 06 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Relationship Between Bride Wealth and Security of a woman in Makindye Division, Kampala District <p><em>The study objective was to establish whether there is a significant relationship between bride wealth and security of a woman in Makindye division, Kampala District.&nbsp; It was guided by the following research question; what is the relationship between bride wealth and security of a woman in Makindye Division Kampala District, Uganda? The study adopted a cross sectional case study design. The study population was 110,224 from which a sample size of 56 respondents was chosen from the Married Women, Local Community Opinion Leaders, and Local Council Leaders (LC1) in Makindye Division. The study used both primary and secondary data collection methods as complementary on Questionnaire Survey and Interview instruments. The study found out that<a name="_Toc495847093"></a>; bride wealth and Security of a woman are significantly correlated (r =-0.355), the sig. value indicate that there is negative and significant correlation (sig. = 0.000 &lt;0.05) leading to a conclusion that Bride wealth significantly improves Security of a woman at 5% level of significance. Basing on these results, the stated null hypothesis of “there is no significant relationship between Bride wealth and security of a woman” is rejected, and thus the findings showed a negative relationship between Bride wealth and security of a woman. These results lead to a conclusion that an improvement in the bride wealth is likely to improve security of a woman in Makindye Division.&nbsp; The same results are supported by the Linear regression results which also indicate that all bride wealth existing in makindye division influence security of a woman in makindye division (F=22.290, sig. =0.000). The same results also indicate that all aspect on bride wealth included in the regression model contribute over 12% towards variations in security of a woman in Makindye division (Adjusted R<sup>2</sup> =0.120). <a name="_Toc495847107"></a>About the Relationship between bride wealth and security of woman, the study recommends that; Non State Actors should carryout advocacy programmes that would stop escalation of bride wealth and create security of a woman while in marriage.</em></p> Dr. Aloysius Tumukunde Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 06 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Analyzing the Link Between Interest Rate Management and Diversification in Nigeria <p><em>This paper examined the linkages between interest rate management and economic diversification in Nigeria. The study used annualized data from 1986 to 2017 and the error correction model (ECM) was employed to analyse our respective models. Our findings showed that interest rate was positively but not significantly associated with agricultural sector performance in Nigeria. The positive effect in the Nigerian case is contrary to theoretical expectations. Moreover, interest rate was found to be negatively related to manufacturing sector performance in the economy. However, the negative impact of cost of fund was significant in Nigeria. We conclude that the biting influence of interest rate was stronger on the Nigerian manufacturing sector, we therefore recommend that Nigeria authorities should apply direct monetary policy measures of the monetary authority and government policy interventions to some selected products that can strengthen her foreign exchange earnings in the manufacturing sector. Nigeria in addition should build economic partnerships with emerging markets and also Government openness to foreign investment ought to be above average.</em></p> Ebele C. Igwemeka, Nnenna Georgina Nwonye, Onuselogu Odidi Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 06 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Pollution and it's Control in Mining Areas <p>Despite government’s repeated assertions for the sustainable mining extraction and development of rural and tribal communities living near the vicinity of mining areas, these have not been converted into implementable solutions. The natural resources from rural and tribal areas are being exploited to meet the ever-increasing requirements and aspirations of the affluent groups. With the above background, this article, taking both experimental and control villages into account, tried to explore the impact of coal mining on local environment. Although dealing with local environment, it has mostly focused on sociological impact of mining in air, water, and noise pollution. The data collected show that the suspended particulate matter concentration is alarmingly high in few sampling locations, whereas respirable suspended particulate matter concentration which once used to be within acceptable limits is now gradually approaching its standard acceptable value of 300 µg/m<sup>3</sup>. Along with uncovered coal transportation, lack of water spraying system and movement of heavy vehicles have brought an addition to air pollution to the locality. The extraction of mining has influenced the water table. The data collected from State Pollution Control Board, Bhubaneswar, show that suspended sediments and chemical oxygen demand in most of the mining areas and biological oxygen demand in few cases have crossed the specific standard. Along with this, household survey was conducted by covering 6 villages and 600 households. The study was undertaken by following experimental design where 450 households were taken from experimental, ie, mining villages, and 150 households have been selected from nonmining areas. Of the 450 households, around 96.44% villagers responded that Mahanadi Coalfields Limited is not taking any mitigation measures to apprehend the pollution caused by mining operations.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Amitap Mishra, Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Rock Fragmentation Control In Open Cast Mining <p>The blasting operation plays a&nbsp;<a href="">pivotal role</a>&nbsp;in the overall economics of opencast mines. The blasting sub-system affects all the other associated sub-systems, i.e. loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Fragmentation control through effective blast design and its effect on productivity are the challenging tasks for practicing blasting engineer due to inadequate knowledge of actual explosive energy released in the borehole, varying initiation practice in blast design and its effect on explosive energy release characteristic. This paper describes the result of a systematic study on the impact of blast design parameters on rock fragmentation at three mines in India. The mines use&nbsp;<a href="">draglines</a>&nbsp;and shovel–dumper combination for removal of overburden. Despite its pivotal role in controlling the overall economics of a mining operation, the expected blasting performance is often judged almost exclusively on the basis of poorly defined parameters such as powder factor and is often qualitative which results in very subjective assessment of blasting performance. Such an approach is very poor substitutes for accurate assessment of explosive and blasting performance. Ninety one blasts were conducted with varying blast designs and charging patterns, and their impacts on the rock fragmentation were documented. A high-speed camera was deployed to record the detonation sequences of the blasts. The efficiency of the loading machines was also correlated with the mean fragment size obtained from the fragmentation analyses.</p> Ainaboina Sai Karthik, Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Mining Circular and Economy <p>The article is devoted to the issue of waste management in the mining regions, as the problems of industrial waste or waste products will always be relevant in nowadays. The most experts focus on urbanization processes, on increasing the resources’ requirements, which in turn will increase the needs of the population and environmental pollution. The processing of waste in the mining regions can be achieved through the use of elements of the circular economy, which will lead to the economic use of natural resources and the interaction of economic, environmental and social development. The building of Eco-Industrial Park using a sector-clustered approach to waste management is suggested in the conclusions. The EcoIndustrial Park will allow related industries to work in symbiosis, where secondary raw materials can be involved in recycling, remanufacturing, recovery, regeneration.</p> Badavath Ramesh, Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Dumping, Storage and Handling of Nuclear Waste in Deep Underground Mines <p>Nations that utilization thermal power decide to store Low-Level and Intermediate-Level radioactive waste in mined vaults, which are comprised of a progression of passages or floats connected to removal burrows at a profundity of a couple hundred meters. Deserted mines might be utilized as waste dumps, and the flow research proposes that this could likewise be finished with High-Level Waste as spent reactor fuel. The strategy involves encasing such trash in metal canisters encompassed by vigorously compacted smectite dirt in both shallow mining storehouses and very profound drag openings. Transitional level radioactive waste, as heaps of metal canisters cast in low-pH concrete and imbedded in thick smectitic mud, might be discarded in caves.</p> Amit Tiwari, Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment of Impact of Mining on Water Quality and it's Modelling <p>Water is one the basic needs of the mining industry. All the operations of mining, directly or indirectly require water for their functioning. The mining industry has been utilizing water carelessly without anticipating the negative impacts it is having on the ecology and the biodiversity of the region. Acid mine drainage has become a common phenomenon associated with mining. Deaths and diseases caused by contaminated water has roused concerns everywhere. The critical situation requires carrying out water analysis of all the water bodies in and around the mines to determine the source, cause, effect and remedies of the different contaminants and pollutants. This is also a part of the corporate social responsibility that the mining industry has pledged to. This also helps in reassuring the people of the pro-development motives of the mining industry. Experimental The samples are collected from two different coal mining regions, IB Valley and Talcher area, of the state of Odisha. The analysis was carried out to find the effect, coal mining activities were having on the water quality of the mines. The purpose was also to compare the effects on the water quality of the two different mines from different regions. The parameters that were determined for this purpose are temperature, pH, conductivity, TDS, DO, BOD, turbidity, acidity, sulphates, phosphates, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and other trace metals.</p> Dileep Singh, Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 07 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Mining Geodesy And Geophysics <p>The technology of mining geophysics is advancing rapidly in methodology, instrumentation and interpretation techniques. A surprising diversity of approach exists in a number of methods, because of differences in the local geological, geophysical, topographic or even socio-political setting. A general trend is towards the simultaneous gathering of increasingly large amounts of independent geophysical data in airborne, ground or borehole surveys. The resultant challenge is to extract the maximum amount of useful geological information from the mass of field data generated by these surveys. Increasingly, computers perform the task of routine interpretation, using either direct inversion programs or automatic selection from a family of theoretical models. Minicomputers are routinely employed in the control of multisensor airborne systems and in the recording of their output in digital form on magnetic tape. Some simple data manipulation is even being done by such minicomputers in real time prior to recording. Microprocessors are being increasingly incorporated into field portable geophysical instruments for surface and borehole surveys.</p> Gola Munda, Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Environmental Geology <p>The article presents an overview of the applied branches of geology, namely, engineering and environmental geology, and their importance in our life. It also includes a discussion of some of the newer sub-specialties or new applications of geoscience, such as medical geology, forensic geology, use of underground space for human occupancy, and geoindicators. It then presents an historical review of the evolution of engineering geology, leading to the introduction of degree programs offered at American universities, and the current prospects and employment trends of geoscience graduates in the United States and other countries. The difference between engineering geology and geological engineering is explained. The controversy relating to inclusion of environmental geology within the engineering geology specialty is discussed at length and it is concluded that, despite some overlaps, environmental geology is different from engineering geology and should be treated as such. Readers are introduced to the newly emerging field of medical geology and its relevance in human health and well-being. It seems likely that geological factors will emerge as one of several factors responsible for the occurrence of diseases such cancer, heart ailments, and other sicknesses that may be related to the excess or deficiency of certain trace elements whose occurrence and distribution are controlled by geological processes. The suggestion is made for inclusion of the relationship between geologic factors and diseases in health education curricula.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Banoth Vinod , Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 A Study On Application of Strategic Planning Models and operations Research Techniques in Opencast Mining <p>Given areas of strength for the for coal, either as anticipated by Coal Vision 2025 or as detailed in the assessments of the Administrative Ministries of Coal Consuming Sectors, a critical need to improve coal supply from native sources is felt. Considering this, a coal creation plan has been conceived for a few 'Plan Periods' from now on. Past the all around rehearsed automated extraction of coal holds utilizing ordinary advances, new ways for taking advantage of CBM and in-situ gasification of coal from difficult to reach sources should be investigated. Coal India has set up an auxiliary called "Coal Videsh" to buy coal from worldwide sources to supplement the accessibility of more excellent coal of both coking and noncoking grades. The auxiliary's job is to accumulate data about mines in different nations and, by means of the acquisition of unfamiliar stock in coking coal properties, to set up for direct import to close the hole.</p> Vemula Phaneeshwar, Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Environmental Protection And Sustainable Development In Indian Metal Ferrous Mineral Sector <p>Sustainable development is a buzz word in natural resources development today. In view of the increased awareness of environmental problems, the accent on sustainable development has grown in recent times, particularly in respect of activities which degrade the environment and affect communities adversely. Mining is one such activity. Mining also presents a contrast. It represents one of man’s earliest activities and with time, the use of minerals has increased both in volume and variety in order to meet a wide range of demands of society. The result is that the present day society, especially in emerging economies like India and China is crucially dependent on the minerals industry for sustained economic progress that will alleviate poverty and improve the quality of life. In these circumstances, sustainable mineral development boils down to bringing about a balance between economic, social and environmental well-being now and for the future. Achieving a dynamic balance between supply and demand for minerals, good governance and environmental management, economic and social stability and intra-generational and inter-generational equity is the challenge that India faces today for the development of its mineral sector. Consequently, the primary objective of this study is to provide an overview of various aspects of the country’s mining industry (mainly metalliferous minerals) as it impinges on the issues relating to sustainable development. It seeks to identify the operational principles of sustainable development that are relevant for mining and examines how governmental and industry practices and procedures can be aligned to these principles for a more satisfactory outcome than exists today. As such it is hoped that the report will be of value to those who are involved in the process of mineral development in the country.</p> Patan Chan Basha, Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 09 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Study Of Stress Distribution And Stress Control In Blasting Gallery Method Working <p>In mining industry, the challenging task of a mining professional comprises of the extraction of maximum natural resources with utmost safety of the miners. This task becomes more problematic when the thickness of coal seam is larger. “Blasting Gallery” method is a unique technique of depillaring thick seams for higher recovery of coal. The extensive literature survey clearly helps to understand that the ultimate potentiality of the method is yet to be explored. Though a number of researchers, academicians and other stake holders attempted to work on it but impact of many significant parameters are still to be analyzed. The Blasting Gallery operation in a mechanized underground mine system depends upon many decisions influenced by the geo-technical parameters which are often interspersed with inherent strata configurations. The present study has been aimed to examine thoroughly BG method operational systems in Indian geo-mining conditions such as: Ø Study of roof convergence with respect to face advancement during different stages of extraction of coal in Blasting Gallery panels in SCCL mines. Ø Simulation of field conditions in the numerical model generated using FLAC. Ø Interpretation of strata behaviour through numerical modeling using FLAC. In order to study the strata behaviour of such coal mines with thick seams, GDK 10 incline, 3A panel of Singareni Collieries Company Limited (SCCL), Ramagundam was selected. This mine has a thick coal seam of 11m and is at depth of 350mtr, practicing Blasting Gallery method to the maximum extent. Convergence behaviour with respect to goaf edge distance (GED) was monitored with the help of high state-of-the-art equipment (calibrated) throughout the life of BG panel. An over emphasis was given on the field study where data of BG mine specially related to natural falls, induce blasting etc. were recorded. Convergence of roof strata in mm, corresponding goaf edge distance (GED) in meter (m), corresponding distance from face in meter (m) and depth of panel in meter (m) were measured to know the significant impact of different layers with varying overburden pressure which leads us to think some logical sequence of interrelated operations.</p> Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel, Boorla Chandra Shekar Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 09 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 An Analysis and Prevention of Flyrock Accidents in Surface Blasting Operations <p>The blasting process remains a potential source of numerous environmental and safety accidents. The majority of these accidents were contributed to the flyrock and lack of blast area security. A field-scale investigation related to flyrock accident was conducted in an andesite quarry where rocks up to 50 cm in diameter were propelled almost 300 m from the center of blasting field causing extensive damages to the surrounding objects. The study revealed that accident occurred due to the existence of andesite alteration in one section of the blast field. The existence of this alteration caused a sliding of rock masses along the subsistent joint planes and thereby reduced burden for the second row of blastholes. Alterations involved small area of andesite masses that were not detected by previous geological exploration or visually observed prior to initiation of blastholes. The result of this filed investigation should have a positive impact on hazard awareness, prevention and safe blasting practices in mining and construction industries.</p> Vollala Laxman, Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 09 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Roof Support System in Underground and Monitoring <p>Field investigations were carried out over a two-year period at NCPH Colliery of S.E.C.L; R-6 Mine site for evaluation of strata behavior during extraction of coal in a 6.5 m thick seam by continuous miner at a depth of 106 m. Numerical and empirical models were also used for modification of existing support system leading to formulation of guidelines for the Strata Management. For the geomining conditions of R-6 mine, maximum of 16 mm roof convergence was observed during widening of galleries. Conventional support system of cement grouted roof bolts of 1.5 m length, 22 mm diameter at a spacing of 1.5 m between rows and 4 bolts in a row. With this conventional support system, widening of galleries up to 6 m has shown no considerable convergence but greater than 6 m wide galleries has resulted in the formation of undulated roof and floor conditions. Based on field observations including convergence of development and depillaring galleries and numerical modeling studies, the support system was modified with resin bolting so as to provide safer working conditions. The modified support system has 1.8 m long resin bolt for split galleries, 2.4 m long resin bolts for original gallery and point-anchored rebar at 1.5 m center-to-center spacing for the roof conditions of NCPH mine. Based on Numerical modeling results, the bolting was found efficient at a distance of 0.6 m from the side of the pillar and 1.5 m distance from the adjacent bolt. Although this work is based on studies carried out for the geomining conditions of the NCPH Colliery; R-6 Mine, it is believed that the findings can be applied to other shallow depth coal mines in similar geological conditions. A significant improvement in safety, productivity, and economy was observed at the NCPH Colliery R-6 Mine by adopting many of the recommendations, and strata management guidelines developed through this work.</p> Kotte Chandramogili, Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 09 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Gases Emission in Underground Coal Mines and its Controlling Measurements <p>The amount of methane (CH4 ) released during coal mining depends on a number of factors, the most important of which are coal rank, coal seam depth, and method of mining. Underground coal mining releases more methane than surface or open-pit mining because of the higher gas content of deeper seams. Total national emissions from coal mining, regardless of the selected methodology, should be calculated as the sum of emissions from underground mining, surface mining, post-mining activities, and emissions avoided due to recovery. The Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC Guidelines) provide two general approaches to estimating CH4 emissions from coal mining. The first approach, outlined in the Tier 1 and Tier 2 methodology is based on coal production and an emission factor. The second approach, the Tier 3 method, uses mine-specific measurement data from ventilation and degasification systems to develop national estimates for underground mines. For countries with significant underground mining, the Tier 3 method is much more reliable because it takes into account variability in geologic formations and mining practices. The difference between Tier 1 and Tier 2 emissions factors for coal mining is that Tier 2 requires measurement data from underground mines within the country itself. Generally, for both Tier 1 and Tier 2, the uncertainty in the activity data (coal production) is low compared to the uncertainty in the emission factors. Ventilation data from underground mines are much more accurate, typically being accurate to within 20 percent. Important considerations for completeness include emissions from abandoned mines and from waste piles, although currently no methodologies exist and data are difficult to collect. For reporting of emissions, it is important that countries disaggregate fugitive emissions from coal mining and natural gas systems, and also provide information on the method and emission factors used.</p> Lingampally Nitish, Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 09 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Post Blasting Environment in Underground Mine <p>Drilling and blasting are the major unit operations in opencast mining. Inspite of the best efforts to introduce mechanization in the opencast mines, blasting continue to dominate the production. Therefore to cut down the cost of production optimal fragmentation from properly designed blasting pattern has to be achieved. Proper adoption of drilling and blasting can contribute significantly towards profitability and therefore optimization of these parameters is essential.</p> Yammanuru Mabu Subahan, Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Productivity Optimization of Side Discharge Loader (SDL) <p>&nbsp;Improvement in production and productivity has become an important aspect for today’s coal industry especially in case of underground coal mines. The record of production and productivity of Indian underground coal mines over the years is dismal, to say the least. Mechanization in loading system has made possible major breakthroughs in underground coal mining technology. Side Discharge Loaders (SDL) is now used as a loading machine for intermediate mechanization in underground coal mining. To meet the production and productivity issues the SDL machine should be maintained effectively and efficiently to have maximum availability. Higher availability of machine shall enable optimum utilization thus increasing production and productivity of these capital intensive items.. This paper intends to identify and highlight the various factors and problems affecting performance of SDL machine. Further an attempt is made to calculate the percentage availability and utilization of SDL deployed in underground coal mines and analyzes the contributing factors to improve the overall efficiency. In addition, the problems of SDL application, breakdown and its management have also been identified and resolved in these studies to propose suitable measures for improving them.</p> Maloth Ramesh, Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 07 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Evolution of Bord and Pillar Mining System Cm Technology in Coal Mines <p>In Indian underground mines by conventional mining the loss of coal is more and the safety also less so the many underground mines planning to introduction of the use of the Continuous miner in bord and pillar mining method. The Continuous miner technology helps in achieving high production and faster rate of extraction with safety. The continuous miners use the shuttle car to transfer the coal from face to feeder breaker, quadbolter for bolting operations by using these automobiles and remote controlled continuous miner hence the man power is less and productivity will increase and safety is more. The present study has been aimed for optimizing continuous miner operations and optimizing the continuous miner utilization under different conditions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Gundaboina Karthik, Mr.Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 11 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Identifying Risks Associated With Human-System Interactions in Remote-Controlled and Autonomous Mining Operations <p>The objective of the project was to answer the question: What risk assessment techniques deliver the most effective and user accepted means of identifying risks associated with human-system interactions in remote-controlled and autonomous mining operations &nbsp;Four hazard identification methods were assessed across three case studies – human-autonomous surface haulage interactions, autonomous longwall mining and remote control of processing plants: 1. Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA/HAZID) (Traditional Method) 2. Failure Mode and Effects Criticality Analysis (FMECA) (Traditional Method) 3. System Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) (Systems-theory Method) 4. Strategies Analysis for Enhancing Resilience (SAfER) (Systems-theory Method) The methods included a literature review, an analysis of the outcomes of workshops with industry participants, and a survey of participants’ feedback.</p> Sayed Sayeeduddinzabi, Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Co Emmisions in Mine <p>&nbsp;A severe reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is necessary to reach the objectives of the Paris Agreement. The implementation and continuous evaluation of mitigation measures requires regular independent information on emissions of the two main anthropogenic greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Our aim is to employ an observation-based method to determine regionalscale greenhouse gas emission estimates with high accuracy. We use aircraft- and ground-based in situ observations of CH4, CO2, carbon monoxide (CO), and wind speed from two research flights over the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB), Poland, in summer 2018. The flights were performed as a part of the Carbon Dioxide and Methane (CoMet) mission above this European CH4 emission hot-spot region. A kriging algorithm interpolates the observed concentrations between the downwind transects of the trace gas plume, and then the mass flux through this plane is calculated. Finally, statistic and systematic uncertainties are calculated from measurement uncertainties and through several sensitivity tests, respectively.</p> Kotte Chandramogili, Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 11 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Plants Processing In Cole Mining <p>In addition to meeting Government Policy on Energy Efficiency Opportunities (EEOs), mining and mineral processing companies are increasing energy efficiency to reduce costs in the current financial conditions. One of the major issues with EEOs is the lack of data available on energy use, and more importantly the energy use linked to production data, that identify energy reduction opportunities. As well as energy reduction, mining and mineral processing companies often struggle with the prediction of energy use, and are often penalised for under or over forecasting. Once again it is the lack of timely information that makes this prediction difficult. This paper looks at expanding the use of a Manufacturing Execution Systems by integrating with Energy Solutions. This will provide automatic, timely information, at a granularity that makes it easier to identify EEOs, reduce energy costs, and better predict energy use in a mining and mineral processing operation.</p> Lingampally Nitish, Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 11 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Controlled Drilling Techniques-Some Regular Monitoring Process Should be Enculcated for Drill Hole Deviation <p>Drilling performance monitoring and optimization are crucial in increasing the overall NPV of an oil and gas project. Even after rigorous planning, drilling phase of any project can be hindered by unanticipated problems, such as bit balling. The objective of this paper is to implement artificial intelligence technique to develop a smart model for more accurate and robust real-time drilling performance monitoring and optimization. For this purpose, the back propagation, feed forward neural network model was developed to predict rate of penetration (ROP) using different input parameters such as weight on bit, rotations per minute, mud flow (GPM) and differential pressures. The heavy hitter features identification and dimensionality reduction are performed to understand the impacts of each of the drilling parameters on ROP. This will be used to optimize the input parameters for model development and validation and performing the operation optimization when bit is underperforming.</p> Chennam Vijay Raju, Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Developing and Improving Resprirable Dust Control in Coal Mines <p>An underground mine consists of the portals (entrance and exits to the mines), mains, submains, panels, and working faces. The panels are the working sections of the production operation. Depending on the mining method, a working section can have one or more working faces.</p> Kommu Nagendrabhargav, Mr. Vinay Kumar Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Exhaust Air from Mine into Electrical Energy <p>The research group developed an independent power supply system for a mine, which generates electrical power to supply electrical loads inside the mine. The electrical power is generated from kinetic energy of gangue material transported from the upper level of the mine to the lower one and thanks to the improved operation of fan exhauster stations controlling air flows inside the mine. A new design of the turbine for electric power generation in the process of slurry transportation was suggested and its pilot sample was produced</p> KOMMU NAGENDRABHARGAV, Mr. VINAY KUMAR PATEL Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 11 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 The Role of Strategic Consensus in Improving Organizational Performance <p><em>Consensus is a general agreement that is agreed by all or almost all parties involved in decision making.</em><em> In research on strategic consensus, this consensus is usually operationalized by measuring the extent to which managers have a common understanding of means and ends, or of strategic priorities. All these definitions and operationalizations focus on shared understanding. However, in several other studies consensus is not only a shared understanding, but also a commitment. Several strategic consensus studies looking at leadership in top management consider strategic consensus and strategic commitment as two dimensions of strategic consensus. Strategic consensus as a positive influence on strategic commitment has so far been established only for top management but should be applied to teams throughout the organization. Consensus was negatively correlated with performance. The difference in results was due to different definitions (operationalization) and different types of research conducted. Operationalization of consensus as a shared understanding of strategic priorities showed a consistently positive effect of consensus on performance.</em></p> Martinus Nahak, Lena Ellitan Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 09 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Survey on Crack Detection on Crack Types Using Machine Learning Techniques <p>In real time scenario, cracks are very common in building, bridge, road, pavement, railway track, automobile, tunnel and aircraft. The presence of crack diminishes the value of the civil infrastructure and hence it is necessary to estimate the severity of crack. Crack detection and classification techniques with quantitative analysis play a major role in finding the severity of crack. The various quantitative metrics are length, width and area. Due to the rapid development in technology, number of images acquired for analysis is growing enormously. Therefore, automatic crack detection and classification techniques for civil infrastructure are essential. This paper focuses on three objectives: (i) Analysis of various crack detection and classification techniques based on crack types (ii) Implementation of Otsu’s based thresholding method for crack detection (iii) Design of proposed system.</p> Ms. Khushboo Rani, Dr. Rahul Srivastava Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 11 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Crack Detection based on Crack Types Using Machine Learning Techniques <p>Due to severe deterioration of concrete surface infrastructure assets require frequent inspection and repair. Furthermore, unavoidable circumstances such as road accidents may occur because of defected infrastructure. Therefore, a proper civil infrastructure inspection system is essential to avoid unwanted circumstances as well as prevent traffic disruption. Manual inspection has been employed for a long time using heavy and large equipment by civil engineers to assess the structural defects. The time- consuming and labor-intensive nature of this type of inspection system causes traffic disruption.</p> Ms. Khushboo Rani, Dr. Rahul Srivastava Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 11 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Assessing the trade relationship between Guangxi Province and ASEAN countries under China-ASEAN Free Trade Area <p>This study explores the trade relationship between Guangxi province and ASEAN countries under the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area (CAFTA) agreement. We used the gravity model of trade and econometric regression model to carry out the study with data obtained from 2002 to 2018.</p> <p>The empirical results show that the trade relation between Guangxi province and ASEAN countries has significant growth and different characteristics at different stages. The results also show that GDP of ASEAN countries, FDI of Guangxi province and population of Guangxi province have positive and significant effects on trade. In particular, Guangxi’s FDI is identified as one of the factors which helps to promote trade relations between Guangxi province and ASEAN countries, and has a positive correlation coefficient of 0.207 at the 5% significance level. Based on the findings, we suggest that; first, Guangxi province should increase the import of products from ASEAN countries to maintain its trade balance and promote economic development; second, Guangxi province needs to strengthen its market development in Indonesia, Thailand and Philippines on the basis of existing cooperation with Vietnam, Singapore and Malaysia; and finally, the distance between Guangxi province and ASEAN countries which tend to hinder the development of bilateral trade should be improved through infrastructural development.</p> Zhan Jingang, Eric Yaw Naminse, Cheng Jia, Zhan Manlin Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 BAG for BUD (कृषि झोला) <p><em>Most of the Nepalese people of rural and disaster occurred areas are struggling for basic needs. They do not have sufficient and balance diet food, no or good education and sufficient structure for making good health. Farmers are reluctant to farming and rearing animals in an improved way. Livelihood of Nepalese farmers in present scenario, people of remote areas and were affected by disaster or natural calamities are somewhat being equal to dormant buds or they are just doing the conventional farming system. &nbsp;For improvement on farming system BAG for BUD, a concept of agriculture project should be developed. It is bag of agriculture which consists of all agriculture input.&nbsp; BUD is a dormant bud. To convert them into active phase support in a need basis is utmost need. Nepalese agriculture practices are based on mixed farming system (MFS) and support should be provided as per its component. To enhance technical as well as economic aspect of farmers from the time of preproduction to marketing, support by different agencies can convert them into active stage. Technical assists should be provided from village level technical staff of different field. To ensure them agriculture is profitable business, technical staffs on risk from initial phase will make a plan including payback period. Method and Result demonstration approach on mixed farming system should be incorporated.</em></p> Bijaya Upadhya Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Enhance Data Security in Cloud Computing <p>Cloud computing is the adept innovation for the ten years. It permits clients to store a lot of data in cloud capacity and use it as and when expected, from any region of the planet, by means of any terminal hardware. Since cloud computing lays on the web, security issues like privacy, data security, secrecy, and verification are experienced. To dispose of something very similar, different encryption algorithms and instruments are utilized. Numerous scientists pick the best they found and use it in various mixes to give security to the data in the cloud. In comparative terms, we have chosen to utilize different confirmation procedures and basic trade algorithms mixed with an encryption algorithm. This mix is alluded to as a "Three way component" since it guarantees each of the three insurance plans of validation, data security, and confirmation at the same time.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> G. Shaheen Firdous, C. Vani, D. Kavya Sree, G. Mounika Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Importance of Literature in Language Enhancement With Reference to the Poetry of Robert Frost <p><em>The widely celebrated New England poet, Robert Frost was born in San Francisco, California, on March 26, 1874. He wrote eleven separate volumes of poems. So, in my research paper, I want to do a critical study of these volumes of poetry to highlight the importance of literature in language enhancement. For example, in the lyrics of A Boy’s Will, he was content to use traditional forms; but even in the earliest of these lyrics he had already begun to displace “musicality” by emphasizing dramatic intonations and cadences of everyday conversational speech, together with a simple vocabulary which heightened the typical Yankee understatements.</em></p> Bisani Venkata Srinivasa Rao Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 17 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Gender and Women Travel Writing: A Study <p>This era is engaged in (re)discovery, (re)emancipation, (re)freedom and most importantly in the (re)discourse. Women and women affairs are throughout engaged in discourse, counter-discourse and (re)discourse from the centuries. Woman as an entity is the first frontier to be dominated by male chauvinism and patriarchy. But instances of revolt for liberation and freedom are common in history from the very beginning. Although crushed and demolished, woman struggled a long way with her qualitative approach. The emotions, feelings, and morality have always been nurtured in their rational and reasonable attitude towards nature, life and philosophy.</p> Dr Bushra Jafri Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 17 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 An Integrated Approach Of Blockchain And For Securing Hospital Data <p>Data is the enter for diverse computing (AI) algorithms to mine vital characteristics, however, statistics at the internet is shipped anywhere and managed with the aid of using more than one stakeholders who do not accept as true with one some other, making statistics utilization tough to authorize or validate in complex our on-line world. As a result, setting up actual-time statistics sharing in our on-line world, moreover as a actual-time effective AI, is particularly tough. By integrating 3 vital components, we advise the SecNet, an structure in order to permit steady statistics storing, computing, and sharing in a totally large-scale Internet surroundings, aiming for more secure our on-line world with definitely huge statistics and for this reason improved AI with considerable statistics sources.1) A blockchain-primarily based totally statistics-sharing platform with an possession guarantee, which permits relied on statistics sharing in a very large-scale surroundings to create actual huge statistics; 2) an AI-primarily based totally steady computing platform to offer greater wise protection regulations, which aids withinside the production of a greater relied on our on-line world; and 3) a relied on value-alternate mechanism for getting protection offerings, which promotes statistics sharing. moreover, we give an explanation for SecNet's typical use state of affairs but as a probable opportunity deployment approach, further as check its efficacy in phrases of community protection and financial sales.</p> Pelluri Venkat Chandu, Jakkula Siddarth, Kamatam Venkata Rohan, Shaik Zulfeqhar Ahmed, Dr. Mohammad Riyaz Belgaum, Mrs. M. Srilakshmi Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 17 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 A Contrastive Analysis of Topicalization in English and Urhobo. <p><em>This research is a contrastive Analysis of Topicalization in English and Udrhobo a South Western Edoid Nigerian language. Its objective is to </em><em>explore topicalization in English and Urhobo Languages using basic Chomsky’s Phase theory model to establish points of divergence while noting convergence in the derivation of the investigated phenomenon so as to highlight areas of learner’s difficulty which will be useful to teachers as best strategies un teaching process. The study utilized two sources of data namely primary and secondary sources. Through observation and textbook, internet and dictionaries, data was collected and analyzed. The theoretical framework adopted for the study is the Phase Theory. The data analysis posited that the theory is a suitable mechanism for the analysis of the investigated structure, lexical items are assigned to probes as a result of the features they possess to realize goal and every syntactic operation is done in phases which is the only level of representation.</em></p> Oyo Orutejiro Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Graduate Students’ Skills and Challenges in Research Writing <p><em>The most challenging problem encountered by graduate students during their study is the postgraduate research and thesis writing. This descriptive research design was employed to investigate research skills and challenges encountered by graduate students in research writing. The respondents of the study were the randomly selected students at the College of Education-Graduate School of the Iloilo State College of Fisheries who are in their thesis and dissertation writing. The data-gathering instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire.</em> <em>Part I of the instrument assessed the research skills which includes information seeking skills, problem solving skills, methodology skills, analysis skills, writing skills, and communication skills. Part II focused on the challenges encountered by graduate students in doing research.&nbsp; Data gathered</em><em> were analyzed using frequency, mean, standard deviation, t-test and ANOVA. The .05 alpha level was used as the criterion for the acceptance or rejection of the null hypotheses. Results revealed that graduate students have excellent information seeking skills, problem solving skills, writing skills and communication skills. Methodology and analysis skills are the least skills acquired by students. It was found that the extremely serious problems faced by graduate students in conducting research are poor time management, financial problem, lack of cooperation of respondents, difficulty in identifying research issue, lack of ICT facilities to analyze the data, contradicting/ conflicting ideas between researcher and adviser, and lack of commitment of researcher. It can be concluded that graduate students have not fully mastered the research methodology skills and data analysis skills. They experienced several limitations and challenges. Poor time management is the most critical challenge. &nbsp;</em></p> CHRISTINE B. DIOCOS Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 On the Probability of any Individual being infected by HIV/Aids in a Year <p><em>In this work, sexual activities of the susceptible population is taken into consideration. It is believed that each sexually active individual has sexual intercourse with at least a partner for at least once in a year. The probabilities of getting infected with the disease by sex was obtained given the same sexual behaviour.</em></p> Ogunwale Olukunle Daniel, Adeleke Raphael Ayantunji, Ayeni Taiwo Michael Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 A Fog-Centric Secure Cloud Storage Scheme <p>Cloud computing is now being taken into consideration as a probable garage provider choice for caterers. Cloud garage safety worries will be a stumbling block to mainstream adoption. Cloud garage is dealing with new safety worries together with privateness breaches, malicious alteration, and records loss. For steady garage the use of numerous clouds, a fog server-primarily based totally 3-layer structure changed into these days supplied. Hash-Solomon code and a bespoke hash set of rules are the simple techniques hired to acquire the goal. However, it led to a smaller quantity of records being misplaced to cloud servers, and it did not offer higher records healing and alteration detection. This studies offers a brand new fog-centric steady cloud garage method for shielding records from unlawful get admission to, alteration, and destruction.</p> Pelluri Venkat Chandu, Jakkula Siddarth, Kamatam Venkata Rohan, Shaik Zulfeqhar Ahmed, Dr.Mohammad Riyaz Belgaum, Mrs.M.Srilakshmi Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 20 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Teaching English as an Employability Skill to Polytechnic Diploma Students in Telangana <p><em>The amalgamation of working and learning is considered a crucial part of a workplace environment and is progressively becoming crucial in educational institutes. Nowadays, an individual’s ability to learn while working is expected in the workplace. At the levels of post-secondary and higher education, the employment and production of employees is considered to be a pivotal part of a learning programme. It is certain that communication skills in the English language along with employability skills and employer engagement, which is the ongoing focal point of the education policy released by the government. The above three skills i.e., communication skills, employability skills and employer engagement, lay focus on a plan set up for educational institutes which involves supporting the amalgamation of work business and employment which would result in educating the workers or employees in the English language and its relevant learning programmes.</em></p> NIRANJAN CHENAGONI Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 20 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 A Re-reading of Domestic Violence in “Home to Haven” <p>Home is a multi-dimensional theoretical concept. It has contradictory meanings wherein it may be considered space, place, feelings, practices, and an active state of being in the world. Home is also a gendered space because it has different connotations for man and woman. For woman, it is not a fixed or a stable concept. Most women in India share one crucial displacement. After marriage—be this an arranged marriage or a love marriage—a woman has to leave her parental home and make a living in her marital home. However, some women become the victim of violence in their marital home which ultimately turns into a place of terror and restrictions rather than of repose and equality. A woman prefers to suffer within the walls of her marital home than getting out of a bad marriage. Champa Sharma’s short story “Home to Haven” brings forth the issue of domestic violence against women within the marital home. Through the character of Reshma, the protagonist, Champa Sharma highlights the predicament of women in the hands of an abusive husband and a son. The paper focuses on the traditional constraints imposed on women; the cycle of violence within abusive marital relationship; why women mostly remain in abusive relationships; and the impact of domestic violence on children.</p> Sapna Sharma, Madhu Bala Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Internet of Things: A Deep Review <p><em>Internet of Things (IoT) is a new paradigm that has changed the traditional way of living into a high-tech lifestyle. Smart city, smart homes, pollution control, energy saving, smart transportation, smart industries are such transformations due to IoT. A lot of crucial research studies and investigations have been done to enhance the technology through IoT. However, there are still a lot of challenges and issues that need to be addressed to achieve the full potential of IoT. These challenges and issues must be considered from various aspects of IoT such as applications, challenges, enabling technologies, social and environmental impacts etc. The main goal of this review article is to provide a detailed discussion from both technological and social perspective. The article discusses different challenges and key issues of IoT, architecture and important application domains. Also, the article brings into light the existing literature and illustrated their contribution in different aspects of IoT. Moreover, the importance of big data and its analysis with respect to IoT has been discussed. This article would help the readers and researcher to understand the IoT and its applicability to the real world.</em></p> K. Sivanesan, Dr. Lakshmi. P Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Water-Disputes between India and Bangladesh on Ganga Water Agreement <p><em>The Ganga/Ganges River Water Agreement was signed in December 1996 between India and Bangladesh. In South Asia, the Ganga Water Arrangement is seen as one of the best ways for neighbouring upstream and downstream to talk with each other.&nbsp;&nbsp;This article looks at the Indo-Bangladesh Ganga Water Laws and the political reasons why the two countries signed an agreement.From the beginning of the discussion interaction to the present day, it has been studied and found that, while the specialised idea of the issue stays the same, changes in domestic government issues either help or hurt the discussion cycle. India and Bangladesh share 53 more streams, so it is important to come up with a good solution from the 1996 discussion that can be used for other waterway problems.</em></p> Nenavath Balu Naik Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 CURBING CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA USING POLYA’S MODEL OF SOLVING PROBLEMS IN A MATHEMATICS CLASS <p><em>This paper adopted an algorithm for fighting corruption by integrating Polya's problem solving model with 5 ways of reducing corruption as suggested by Transparency International. Concerted efforts were made in the paper to review relevant literature on Corruption in post-millennium -Nigeria and the place of Mathematics in addressing the menace of corruption. The review led to the conclusion that more efforts need to be put in place by the government to aggressively and methodically fight corruption in Nigeria. To do so, the polya model should be religiously applied using the 5 ways that government and citizens can make progress in the fight against corruption as identified by Transparency International.</em></p> 1Abari, Meshach Terseer , Durodola, Grace Temilolu Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 29 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Simplicity, Humour and Wisdom in ‘The Blue Umbrella’ by Ruskin Bond <p>Ruskin bond is a writer whose name is not unknown to the readers. He is the one whose stories need no introduction. He pens down his stories in a very lucid and fantastic manner covering the touched and untouched areas of human life and aspirations ranging from themes such as child psychology, environment, friendship, love of nature, innocence, wisdom and also the personal experience of the author. He has been writing for over sixty years and has now over 120 titles in print- novels, collections of short stories, poetry, essays, anthologies and books for children. His novel <em>‘The Blue Umbrella’ </em>(1980) deeply studies the human psychology and gives us valuable lessons for life. This short and humorous novel captures life in a hilly village of Garhwal, where ordinary characters become extraordinary, heroic and others find opportunities to redeem themselves. &nbsp;Ruskin Bond writes his stories in a very witty yet simplistic manner that everybody reads and enjoys them without much difficulty. His writing reflects a genuine simplicity and has a deep and everlasting impact on the readers minds. <em>‘The Blue Umbrella’</em> is a good source of amusement loaded with wisdom and a perennial fountain of knowledge. This paper will focus on the basic and significant virtues presented by Ruskin Bond through his novel the <em>‘The Blue Umbrella’</em> that can help the people to become good human beings.</p> Madhu Bala Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 29 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 THE EFFECT OF REMOTE WORK ON MARKETING PERFORMANCE: EVIDENCE FROM SAUDI ARABIA <p><em>The aim of the research is to test the impact of remote work on marketing performance in private schools in the cities of Abha and Khamis Mushait, and to determine the level of workers’ application of remote work in private schools in the cities of Abha and Khamis Mushait, and to know the level of marketing performance in private schools in the cities of Abha and Khamis Mushait, as well as determining the level of marketing performance in private schools in the cities of Abha and Khamis Mushait. The essential differences with statistical significance between the research variables represented by (remote work and marketing performance) that are due to the variables of gender, age, experience and educational qualification. The researcher used the descriptive analytical method using the electronic questionnaire directed towards the research community represented by all workers in private schools in the city of Abha and Khamis Mushait, whose number is (1942). The questionnaire was distributed to a simple random sample of (320) individuals working in private schools in the cities of Abha and Khamis Mushait in Saudi Arabia, and the sample size was determined based on the tables for determining the size of the sample, which represents 16.5% of the community size and constitutes a high proportion . The statistical methods represented by percentages, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, Pearson correlation, simple regression analysis, analysis of variance and least significant difference test were used. The research concluded with several results, the most important of which are: There is an impact of remote work on marketing performance in private schools in the cities of Abha and Khamis Mushait, and remote work is applied at an average level among workers in private schools in the cities of Abha and Khamis Mushait. The level of marketing performance is also average in private schools in the cities of Abha and Khamis Mushait. The study also concluded that there are no fundamental differences between the average responses of the sample members towards the axes of the study represented in (remote work - marketing performance) due to gender. There are no significant differences between the averages of the respondents' answers towards the axis of the study represented in (remote work) due to the academic qualification. There are no significant differences between the averages of the sample members’ answers towards the study axis represented in (marketing performance) due to years of experience and years of age, but there are substantial differences between the averages of the sample members’ answers towards the study axis of (marketing performance) due to the academic qualification. For the benefit of the study sample with a bachelor's degree. There are also substantial differences between the averages of the sample members’ answers towards the study axis of remote work due to experience, and the differences were in favor of the study sample members with experience (5- less than 10 years). There are also substantial differences between the averages of the sample members’ answers towards the study axis of remote work due to age, and the differences were in favor of the study sample members of the age group (from 30 years to less than 40 years). The researcher recommended several recommendations, the most important of which is that private schools in the city of Khamis Mushait and Abha should pay attention to remote work and provide the necessary capabilities to improve and develop remote work, especially in times of crisis such as the Covid-19 pandemic, and because of its great impact on marketing performance.</em></p> Dr. Bassim Qaid Al-Ariki Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 29 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500 TRENDS IN E COMMERCE IN INDIA: A CONCEPTUAL STUDY <p><em>E-commerce stands for electronic commerce and performing business online and electronically. The E-commerce has entirely transformed the conventional perception of business. E-commerce deals with buying and selling of goods and services with the help of internet and computer networks. Hence, this research has focused on understanding the growth &amp; development of E-commerce in India and what the current trends in E-commerce are. This research has adopted the qualitative research approach and provides a review of existing literature in order to understand the scope, growth and development of E-commerce in India with the current trends that derives industry growth. Findings of this study further indicate that E-commerce will see rapid and continuous growth in India. These works also find out, E-commerce delivers the several kinds of opportunities to the Retailers, Producers, the People and Wholesalers. E commerce is also expanding through the middle east. Having recorded the world’s fastest growth in the internet usage between 2012 -2021, the region is now home to more than 60 million internet users.</em></p> S. Rama Linga Raju, Dr. Lakshmi P Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 29 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0500