A Comparative Study of the Effect of Phase I Enzymes in Rat Kidney Tissue Treated with Psidium Guajava Leaf Extract in Paracetamol Induced Toxicity.
This study evaluated the effect of phase I enzymes on rat kidney tissue with guava leaf extract (PsidiumguajavaLinn.) on Paracetamol-induced toxicity, which were investigated in male albino rat by monitoring the activities of tissue enzyme. The phytochemical screening of Psidiumguajava leaf extract was carried out. Twenty-five albino rats were divided into five groups: Group1 and Group 2, served as normal and intoxicated control respectively, Group 3 as treated with Curcumin (100mg/kg for 6 days) as standard, Group 4 and 5 received extract (250 and 500mg/kg) respectively for six days. On the fourth day, after two hour’s treatment, Group 2 and 5 received Paracetamol (400mg/kg) respectively. After the treatments the animals were scarified 48 hours after with acute dose of Paracetamol.
Pretreatment with guava extract before the administration of Paracetamol significantly prevented the increase in tissue Alanine Aminotransferase (ALF), Alkaline Phosphate (ALP) activities. This results provided showed that guava extract significantly inhibits the kidney damage toxicity induced by high dosage of Paracetamol in rats, as shown by a reduction of kidney enzymes activities in Aspartate Transferase (AST), Gamma Glutamyl Trans peptidase (GGT) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The use of guava extract alone on the other hand showed nephron-protective properties of guava leaf extract, in that the above parameters were significantly lower than those of the untreated control. The protective effect of the extract against Paracetamol toxicity was however limited to the kidney, effects which may be due to this anti-oxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of some of the components of the extract. Also, the phytochemical investigation of the extract of Psidiumguajava leaf extract showed the absence of Alkaloids and the presence of Flavonoid, Saponins, Phenols, Terpenes, Sesquiterpenes and Tannins. Finally, the treatment with Acetaminophen (APAP) as shown in the study had an acute devastated effect on the kidney, as exemplified by the increases in kidney enzymes, creatinine, urea and total protein release into the blood stream as a result of damages on the kidney cells by presence of APAP.