Enhancing Green Synthesis using Zinc Oxide/Musa Paradiascal Nanoparticles for Soil Remediation Within the Coastal Region of Niger Delta, Nigeria
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of biosynthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles using plantain peel (Musa paradisiacal) extract (MPE) for remediation of oil spill contaminated soil sites within the Niger Delta zone of Nigeria. This study became of paramount importance due to substantial retrogression in agricultural activities off the coastal region and vegetation which has resulted in acute food shortage, land degradation, malnutrition which in turn has brought the Nigerian economy from “grace to grass” MPE/ZnONPs was characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) taking in cognizance of the physicochemical parameters of the soil before and after analysis so as to ascertain the efficacy of remediation technique. SEM revealed the image of an irregular morphology and a porous surface which can enable oil entrance into the internal parts of the nanomaterial for easy sorption purposes. The XRD revealed a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a particle size of 22 nm. The synthesized MPE/ZnONPs exhibited adsorption properties when used on the oil spill contaminated soil samples and the degradation efficiencies were found to range between 1.87 – 9.48%(CSOA1); 1.38 – 12.06% (CSPB1); 44.87 – 88.79% (CSOA2) and 38.95 – 79.24% (CSPB2) for the oil contaminated samples suggesting that the synthesized MPE/ZnONPs had good efficacy for oil spill removal in the contaminated soil samples. Kinetic of remediation gave a linear graph and took a pseudo-first order reaction with R2 values close to 1 (R2 = 0.980, 0.901, 0.957 and 0.935).Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) employed in the course of this study revealed that there is significant difference (p˂ 0.05) at 95% confidence limit in the diminishing trend of TPH of the CSOA1 and CSOA2 and likewise that of CSPB1 and CSPB2. It is therefore recommended that for optimum remediation efficacy most especially in oil saturated soil medium,, surfactant enhanced ex-situ soil washing may be employed.