International Journal of Research <div>International Journal of Research (IJR) with ISSN 2348-6848 (Online) and 2348-795X (Print) is an international peer reviewed, internationally refereed, online, open-access journal published monthly. International Journal of Research (IJR) represents a revolution in scholarly journal publishing platform. A pioneering effort in liberal, open access publishing with fast and high quality peer review that brings journal publishing to the doorstep of every researcher and student. We believe that quality information should be free and accessible universally in this day and age. The ideology of an open-access journal is in being free for all and IJR will be free for all to read and share.</div> <div>Send papers to <strong></strong></div> <div><strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="homepageImage"><img src="" alt="Journal Homepage Image" width="158" height="106" /></div> <strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="additionalHomeContent"> <p>IJR takes special care to publish your research paper/article without any delay. Our journal aims to bring out the latent research talent and the professional work done by Scientists, Engineers, Architects, Planners, Practitioners, Administrators, Scholars, Graduate and Post Graduate students across all fields. This journal welcomes the submission of your research papers that meet our submission guidelines and the general criteria of significance and excellence in the field of Engineering, Science and Humanities. Submitted articles are peer reviewed by our panel of experts from various fields. All submitted papers are double-checked for plagiarized content. Please note that all submissions need to be previously unpublished.</p> </div> </div> en-US (D Bong) (De Bong) Thu, 02 Sep 2021 00:05:34 -0500 OJS 60 NEED OF CARBON NEGATIVE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS TO SEQUESTER GHG EMISSION AND GLOBAL WARMING. <p>Concrete is the key element for construction of buildings after its introduction in construction industry, it was supposed to be a gift for construction industry but its excessive use has become a threat with the amount of CO2 emitted each year during its production. Concrete contributes to green house gas emission and its production alone contributes to 102 mega tones of&nbsp; global CO2 production. Advancement in construction technologies like Tunnel formwork and Aluminium formwork has bought significant changes over conventional construction process. These technologies and advancement have replaced all the building elements with concrete, which eventually will result in growing demand for concrete production and CO2 emitted along with it. Before introduction of concrete, load bearing structures were built with masonry width 450mm and above but after its introduction only frame structure of the building were built in concrete except facade and internal walls, which were built with mud bricks, but in later stage with such an advancement in construction trends and technologies all the components of buildings are built in concrete including external and internal walls. If all the components of buildings are made in concrete, it will ultimately lead to excess concrete production and thus emitting maximum green house gas which will reflect in rising global temperature thus causing sea level rise up due to conversion of&nbsp; ice glaciers into water. This research paper emphasis on using carbon negative building blocks i.e&nbsp; Hempcrete blocks to absorb carbon from the atmosphere thus decreasing the global temperature and to have control over the disasters caused such as floods due to rising sea level. To mitigate ever increasing green house gases, use of sustainable material which is carbon negative is mandatory for building low rise as well as high rise towers. Carbon absorbing bio composite material which is hempcrete is advised to be used to sequester existing CO2 from the environment.</p> Vineet.V.Bodhe Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 01 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 PRINCIPALS’ INTERACTIONAL JUSTICE AS CORRELATES OF TEACHERS’ ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN DELTA STATE <p><em>The study investigated principals’ interactional justice as correlates of teachers’ organizational citizenship behaviour in secondary schools in Delta State. One research question guided the study and one null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance. Correlational research design was used in carrying out the study. The population of the study consisted of </em><em>12,473 teachers in 465 public secondary schools in Delta State</em><em>.</em><em> A sample size of 1,250 teachers was drawn for the study using </em><em>proportionate stratified random sampling technique</em><em>. Two set of instruments titled “Interactional Justice Scale (IJS) and “Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Scale (OCBS)’’ were used for data collection. The instruments were subjected to face validation by three experts, two in the Department of Educational Management and Policy, and a specialist in Measurement and Evaluation all in the Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. The instruments were subjected to test of internal consistency using Cronbach alpha which yielded overall coefficient of </em><em>0.84 for IJS and 0.86 for OCBS. </em><em>&nbsp;The researcher together with six research assistants administered copies of the questionnaires directly to the respondents and a 96 percent return rate of the instruments was recorded.</em> <em>Data were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation for the research questions, and multiple regression for the hypotheses. </em><em>The findings of the study revealed among others that</em> <em>t</em><em>here was strong relationship between principals’ interactional justice and their organizational citizenship behaviour in secondary schools in Delta State. It was also reported that there is significant relationship between principals’ interactional justice and their organizational citizenship behaviour in secondary schools in Delta State. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that Ministry of Education should plan and organize capacity building programmes to empower and enrich the knowledge of principals’ interactional justice to improve the organizational citizenship behaviour of teachers. </em></p> Ubido, Godson Aforkeoghene , Okorji Perpetua Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 02 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 DIGITAL MARKETING CONTRIBUTION ON PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN RWANDA: A CASE STUDY OF BANK OF KIGALI <p><em>The study assesses the digital market contribution on performance of commercial banks in Rwanda. This study employed a descriptive cross-sectional survey design where it was used to gather information on a population of 10 customers and 23 employees at a single point in time. The sample size was included by 10 staffs in sales department and 23 employees of marketing department from BK. The application of digital marketing helps in reducing marketing cost against traditional marketing in commercial banks in Rwanda where 30.0% in BK said that digital marketing reduces the cost at a very high level; while 70.0% respondents in BK said that digital marketing reduce the cost of marketing for Bank at a very high level. In a nutshell, according to the findings there is significant contribution of digital marketing on performance of commercial banks in Rwanda and Bank of Kigali in particular. As recommendation, the commercial banks in Rwanda should invest in digital platforms so as to be in a position to take full advantage of the digital marketing potential. </em></p> Byamukama Eliab Mpora, Gatovu Ngenzi Justin, Kagabika Boaz Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 02 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND JUDICIAL APPROACH WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO COVID-19: A SOCIO-LEGAL STUDY <p><em>Domestic violence is a worldwide problem that transcends national borders, as well as socioeconomic, cultural, racial, and class destinations. This problem is not only geographically widespread, but it also has a widespread in all sectors including recognized practices. It is generally predominant among women in India and has been associated with poor mental and physical wellbeing. By and large, domestic violence at home is very notable and generally most frequent towards women in India. It is perceived as a situation supported and reinforced by sexual orientation standards and values that place women in a subordinate position comparable to men. Domestic abuse is widespread, deeply ingrained, and has major consequences for women's health and well-being. It's morally indefensible to keep it going. It’s cost to individuals, to health systems and to society is gigantic.&nbsp; This study reviles the presence of domestic violence in Indian women. This paper is an attempt to analyze the various causes and judicial approach towards domestic violence in India. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the current study looked into incidents of domestic abuse among Indian women. The paper is concluded by giving suggestions. </em></p> Annapurna Pattnaik , Prof. Dr. N.C. Patnaik Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 02 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Study on Social Maturity of College Students in relation to their Social Media Utilization in Cuddalore District <p><em>The present investigation was conducted in the area of Cuddalore District of Tamil Nadu, India and adopted normative survey method. Random sampling technique was used in the selection of the sample of 804 Arts, Science and Engineering College Students. Social Maturity Scale - constructed and validated by the Investigator and Social media utilization Questionnaire - constructed and standardized by </em><em>Savita Gupta&nbsp;&nbsp; and Liyaqat Bashir (2018)were used.</em><em> The findings of this study reveals that the level of College Students’ Social Maturity of entire sample is Moderate and the Social Media Utilization is high.</em></p> Bakkiyaraj R , Andal S Copyright (c) 2021 Fri, 03 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Covid 19: Perception of Hospitality Students on Online Learning Tools <p><em>The recent outbreak of Covid -19 pandemic resulted in the lockdown of every sector of the economy to reduce the spread of this deadly disease and the educational sector is not left out. The focus of teaching and learning from face to face shifted to virtual learning using various interface such as zoom, webinar, Google and Whatsapp. Despite the enormous benefits of utilizing the online mode of learning, students were still finding it difficult to cope with the recent paradigm shift from the traditional method of learning to online mode. This study therefore, seeks to investigate the perception of hospitality students on online learning tools. The research design adopted for this study is a cross-sectional study and the population of this study were full time Hospitality students in Wavecrest College of Hospitality Lagos and Yabatech Lagos <strong>. </strong>The electronic questionnaire was used to collect data and the reliability co-efficient of the instrument is 0.72. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20 was used to analyze the data collected. The study showed that almost all the participants utilize What Sapp as a platform for online learning but utilize Android phones as device for online learning while few of the respondents utilize window phones.&nbsp; Also, this study showed that respondents do not wish to continue utilizing online learning for further studies. It can be concluded that the benefits of utilizing online learning are enormous but still have some shortcomings that need to be overcome for the mode of study to be accepted by learners and teachers. It is recommended there is need for regular training of teachers on the utilization of online learning tools that is effective.</em></p> OSUAGWU LUCY NKECHIYERE, Obasi Chizurumoke Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 04 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Study On “Employee Morale” At AEGIS BPO <p><em>The contemporary day glances at destinations to break down the effect of low morale and inspiration on personnel's productiveness and intensity. Intense need and productiveness of passion are eventual outcomes of low enthusiasm and espresso inspiration and may once in a piece cause, also, undesired signs close by truancy and harm. A survey became worked to harvest the motivation behind why consequently, and it additionally became distributed to picked bookkeeping and control personnel running in restrictive Jordanian endeavor that is business. The aggregate sum of surveys broke down had been (276) polls. Goal records were in reality dissected utilizing the product that is statistical PLS (Partial Least Square). The look closely at established that low morale and espresso inspiration affect productiveness and seriousness. Likewise, it suggests that control must canvas on developing productiveness through method for the technique for creating joy that is personnel re-designing constructions and strategies offering impetuses, training, and training</em><em>.</em></p> P. Santhosh Kumar, K. Revathi, Dr. T Vara lakshmi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Jordan In Counterterrorism, Threats, and Strategy <p><em>This Research paper tries to bring to the causes of the current terrorist threats in Jordan in the chaotic region and the methods of combating terrorism. It focuses on mainly on the Jordanian policy and strategy for combating terrorism including legal, diplomatic, and security efforts. The impact of the Syrian crisis on this poor resources country causing undeniable political, economic, social and security threats. The article shows the efforts of Jordan to fight terrorism through national and international strategy by joining the International Alliance against ISIS. Jordan holds a significant role in this battle on multi-dimensions.</em></p> Mohammed B. E. Saaida Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Utilization of control measures for malaria among pregnant women in Oyi LGA <p><em>The incidence of malaria among pregnant women </em><em>malaria poses health risk to the life of the unborn baby. This has raised concerns as to whether the pregnant women utilize the measures for controlling malaria. The purpose of the study was to ascertaining the utilization of control measures for malaria among pregnant women in Oyi Local Government Area of Anambra State.Two research questions gavedirection to the study. Survey research design was used for the study. The sample for the study consisted of 200 pregnant women obtained through accidental sampling techniques were used. 16-item questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection after validation by three experts. The findings revealed that while many pregnant women do not utilize prophylaxis as a control measure for malaria, many others utilize environmental management, vector control and personal control measures of malaria. In line with the findings of the study, it was recommended thatministry of health should make conscious efforts in highlighting the added benefit of using malaria preventive measures such as prophylaxis during pregnancy as a deliberate strategy to protect the new born against malaria infections.</em></p> Ananomo, L.E., Chukwuemeka, A.E., Nnaemezie Nkiru O. Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 EFFECT OF AGE AND GENDER ON PLANNING AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION SKILLS FOR PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE IN BENUE STATE, NIGERIA <p><em>The coaching profession is constantly changing therefore, coaches at all levels of sport competition need to know more than just the fundamental elements in order to be successful. Specifically, the competencies in planning and conflict management skills can come in handy while physically and mentally training their athletes. This study investigated the effect of age and gender on planning and conflict resolution skills for professional practice in Benue State. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials and Methods</em></strong><em>: The research design that was adopted for this study was survey research design. The Population of the study consisted of all the coaches of Benue State Sports Council Makurdi. The sample comprised one hundred and sixty two (162) coaches of Benue State Sports Council who were purposively selected for the study. The questionnaire titled (EAGCPCRSPP) developed by the researcher was used for data collection in this study. The independent sample t-test was used to find out gender differences in planning and conflict resolution skills. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyse differences in coaches’ age in planning as well as their conflict resolution skills. All the analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 23) at 0.05 level of significance. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>: Male and female coaches in Benue State did not differ significantly in their mean ratings of their planning (p&gt;0.05). Result indicated that, coaches of different age range did not differ significantly in their mean ratings of planning (p&gt;0.05). The findings also indicated that there is no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female coaches in Benue State on their conflict resolution skills (p&gt;0.05). The findings also revealed that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of coaches conflict resolution skills by age (p&gt;0.05). </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong> <em>Further research however, is needed to ascertain other factors that might have an effect on planning and conflict resolution skills given their implications for sports development in Benue State</em>.</p> Terkimbi Victor Ikpato , John Ityonande Ityodugh, Tavershima Kparev, Eunice Nguungwan Seer-Uke, Mary Agajah, Sarah Ngukuran Burbwa Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessing Anti-Poverty Schemes: Sociological Narratives from the Research Field <p><em>The narratives constitute a set of social realities we experience in day-to-day situations. </em><em>The narratives from the research field become part of the biographies and autobiographies of the researchers and respondents. The baggage of these biographies and autobiographies explores the untraced facets of social reality and also shapes the viable ‘positions’, the perspectives, and the methodologies of the researchers. The author used the narrative collected between 2001 to 2010, from the field, studying The EGS and the SGRY, the two anti-poverty schemes implemented in Nashik district, and grasped the meaningful essence of the qualitative, reflexive data, insights that explored the other part of the social reality.</em></p> Dr. Sanjay Savale Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 04 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Switched Reluctance Motor for Hybrid Electric Vehicle <p><em>The Electric vehicles are becoming increasingly important as not only do they reduce dependence on oil, but also they can be used to minimize noise and pollution. There are many electric-propulsion systems for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). The SRMs are gaining much interest and are recognized to have a potential for HEV applications because of its several advantage. There are, however, several disadvantages, which for many applications outweigh the advantage. The torque ripple, acoustic noise and speed ripple. The highly nonlinear nature of the SRM operating in saturation makes analytical modelling extremely difficult. The main aim of this project is to employ the non-linear controller for switched reluctance motor to reduce the torque and speed ripple to make it suitable for HEV.</em></p> Sudiksha Srivastava , Pankaj Sahu Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 04 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A STUDY ON “ONLINE TRADING,CLEARING AND SETTLEMENT” EMKAY GLOBAL FINANCIAL SERVICES PVT LTD <p><em>Indian Stock marketplace a extensive spot for ventures and profit. In any case, in past time, there has been nothing approximately the digital trade which happened the high profile outrages which annihilated the complete society self assurance. Web based totally exchanging is going through with stock exchanges on the web through a few sites. Such corporations have an splendid process in arising styles and on-line commercial enterprise has an remarkable impact over numerous economic administrations accommodates of take a look at composing, credit and charge playing cards, digital invoice paying. Over years the arising businesses have a short history of feat all because of net. The on line exchange cycles of money complete of buying and promoting of securities, shares and one-of-a-kind ventures, these all is going below web primarily based exchanging. The real state of affairs of all the commercial enterprise styles has extended their commercial enterprise into online exchange in their hard work and products and in areal sense it's whatever however an superb impact on their provide of commercial enterprise. For example we will take the case of any web page which deals in a few hard work and products given with the aid of them over the website and we see that each one the point of view identifying with the business is profit at the website whether or not it might fear to the rebate, overall sum, positive charges, and so on Customers expect a good sized part and their zing, enthusiasm and want are being glad by using on-line enterprise. This is the incentive in the back of why the net exchanging agencies are on the speed to the success.&nbsp; Besides investigation of the cycle gets out of threat and risk the executives interplay is handily sorted time to time.</em></p> Vadla Arun Kumar, M. Sindu, Dr. T Vara Lakshmi Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 04 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Study On Financial Performance Analysis Of Commercial Banks, Company Union Bank <p><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In today’s scenario, the banking sector is one of the fastest growing sectors and a lot of funds are invested in Banks. Also today’s banking system is becoming more complex. So, there is a strong need to evaluate their performance of the banks. There are various models of&nbsp;evaluating the performance of the banks, but in this study we discussed about the CAMEL Model to evaluate the performance of the banks. This model measures the performance of the banks from parameter comprising of Capital adequacy, Assets quality, Management, Earnings and Liquidity, We have studied the performance of five banks selected on the basis of market capitalisation (i.e. UBI, HDFC Bank, ICICI Bank, Axis Bank and Kotak Mahindra Bank.). Period under study is from 2016-2016. After calculating ratios weightage have been given to each parameter of the CAMEL Model. From the weighted results of each ratio, we have given marks on the bases of the performance of the bank. On the basis of best overall performance, we have assigned ranks from 1 to 5 to the banks under study. As per the whole evaluation, the results of the study are as follows and we rank the banks as per the study results. </em><em>1<sup>st</sup> Rank: HDFC Bank; 2<sup>nd</sup> Rank : UBI Bank; 3<sup>rd</sup> Rank : Kotak Mahindra Bank; 4<sup>th</sup> Rank : ICICI Bank; 5<sup>th</sup> Rank : AXIS Bank.</em></p> Kalaali Bikshapathy Goud, M Sindu, Dr.T Vara Lakshmi Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY <p><em>Undoubtedly, it can be said that customers are the most important asset in the most organizations. Since customers have a direct relationship to the actions of an organization, therefore they are valuable source of opportunities and threats operational questions related to the industry. Today, to grow and survive in competitive economy, companies and organizations should pay attention to customer orientation and increase their relationship with the buyers of goods more than ever. Theoretical models of customer relationship management include three dimensions of thought, social and technological information. This paper is an introduction of the principles and concepts of management, communication with customers and benefits of applying this and examined trends in customer relationship, challenges facing of CRM systems, the implementation model and also the applicable solutions of implementation process of the system in organization. </em></p> Nwamara Ojiugo Esther, Chinedu Solomon Igwe Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 04 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 EFFECTS OF GRAPHIC ORGANIZER ON JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN COMPUTER STUDIES <p>The study investigated the effects of graphic organizer on junior secondary school students’ achievement in computer studies. The study employed a pre-test post-test non equivalent control group design. The study was carried out in Enugu Educational Zones of Enugu State. The population of the study is fifteen thousand one hundred and eighty two (15182) JSS II students of computer studies 2014/2015 session in Enugu educational zone of Enugu State. The sample for the study comprised of ninety one (91) Junior Secondary School class II students drawn from two co-educational secondary schools in Enugu Educational Zone of Enugu State. The schools were randomly sampled from a total of 9 co-educational secondary schools in the educational zone. One school was assigned to treatment group while the other school was assigned to the control group. All the intact classes were used for the study. The treatment group was taught computer studies with graphic organizer approach, while the control group was taught computer studies with conventional strategy. Three&nbsp; research questions and&nbsp; three corresponding null hypotheses guided the study. A Computer Studies Achievement Test&nbsp; (CSAT) that is made up of 30 items was used to collect data for the study. The research questions were answered descriptively using mean and standard deviation while the hypotheses were tested using ANCOVA at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study revealed that graphic organizer approach is superior to the conventional strategy in&nbsp; &nbsp;facilitating students achievement in computer studies. It also revealed that the mean scores for females is higher than that of male for the group taught with the graphic organizer approach. It was also found that there is no interaction between method and gender on students’ achievement in computer studies. Based on these findings, recommendations were made which include, that government should organize seminars, conferences and workshops to train computer science teachers on the use of graphic organizer as a teaching approach. The study finally concluded that use of graphic organizer teaching approach is effective in facilitating students achievement in computer studies and therefore should be used to teach students.</p> Chinyere M.Onyeisi Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 09 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 SERVICE QUALITY PERCEPTION OF NEW GENERATION PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS IN TIRUPUR CITY-AN EMPIRICAL STUDY. <p>The study highlights the service quality of New GenerationPrivate Sector Banks. The main reason behind conducting this study is to check the satisfaction level of customers of New &nbsp;Generation Private Sector Banks regarding those services which is provided by the bank. And also give suggestion to Bank if customers are not satisfied with the services of New Private Sector Banks. A lot of surveys have been done in the past to understand the aspect of customer satisfaction and to find out the customer friendly banks. My research is conducted to find out “SERVICE QUALITY OF NEW GENERATION PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS”. For checking the customer satisfaction and service quality of New Generation Private Sector Banks there are 5 dimensions are included in service quality.</p> MRS. N.SATHYA, Dr. M.KRISHNAVENI Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 09 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, A CASE STUDY OF EQUITY BANK-KAMPALA, UGANDA <p>The study examined the effect of corporate governance on business management in commercial banks in Uganda using Equity Bank as a case study. this was guided by the flowing objectives to establish the effect of transparency on business management, to examine the effect of accountability on business management, and to establish the effect of board composition on business management at Equity Bank. The study will be guided by both Principal Agency Theory and stakeholder theory. The study comprised 100 respondents sampled out of the total population of 134 employees being selected randomly from the Equity Bank. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient for transparency&nbsp; and&nbsp; business management&nbsp; was r = 0.633, which was positive with probability value (p = 0.000) that is less than α = 0.01 level of significance, showing a positive relationship between transparency&nbsp; and organizational&nbsp; performance&nbsp; at the one per cent level of significance. The findings on the effect of transparency and business management revealed a significant relationship. The management of the bank should ensure that the generated financial reports are accurate, relevant and reliable so as to enhance decision making at the bank which would in turn have a positive effect on the performance of the bank</p> Byamukama Eliab Mpora, Frank Hagumamina, Agaba Moses, Oketch Christostom, Arthur Sunday Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 09 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Problems and Challenges in Online Education during COVID-19 Pandemic in India <p>This article studies the challenges and effectiveness of online education in India during COVID-19 pandemic. The responses of 200 students and 42 teachers have been analysed to understand their problems and challenges and to make the online education more effective. A substantial number of respondents found online teaching/learning tiring. Many complained about poor internet connectivity and lack of training and gave some useful suggestions to improve the quality of online classes.&nbsp; This work highlights the need of better technical and pedagogical training and psychological grooming of teachers and students in India.</p> Braj Mohan Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 EFFECT OF SNAGS ON MECHANICAL NECK PAIN <p>: &nbsp;Neck pain is a rampant problem which is definitely on the increase especially during the pandemic. This pandemic has resulted in many professionals using the computers/laptops. One of the reasons of neck pain has been postural malalignment. Traditionally, there have been methods to treat the pain. There have been studies with traditional physical therapy agents.</p> <p>Aim: This study is to understand the effect of SNAGS in people working from home and having neck pain.</p> <p>Methods : a comparative study was done using Mulligan SNAGS versus traditional methods on 30 subjects. 15 were put into each group. Outcome measures used were VAS, Neck disability index and range of motion.</p> <p>Results : SNAGS and postural advice showed better improvement than only the postural advice.</p> <p>Conclusion : statistical analysis showed that SNAGS and postural advice (group B) showed better improvement in terms of reduction of pain and NDI scores and improvement in ROM as compared to postural advice group.</p> <p>Keywords: Mulligan Self Mobilization, Mulligan SNAG, Joint Reposition Error, Neck Disability Index, Visual Analogue Scale</p> Mrs. Nice Mathew Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Radio Propagation in 24 GHz Band For 5G Wireless Communications <p>Due to recent upsurge in the increase in use of mobile devices such as smart phone, tablets and other data consuming devices, this increase in data-centric users and new services has pushed in the demand for higher data rate ultra-low latency, lower energy consumption and better mobility management. The researcher found the proposed solution by employing the use of Fifth-Generation (5G) system. This 5G system is a revolutionary concept that is being proposed not only to provide voice and data services, but also to serve as a hub for other enabling technologies, such as the Internet of Things (IoT). In recent times, most of the literature of 5G deployment ae yet to agree on the deployment of 5G due to local environmental peculiarities such as atmospheric and climatic variables associated to the tropics regions are not considered. In this work, the author focuses on the spectrum band standardization of 5G system, propagation characteristics for a low wavelength transmission at the low frequency bandwidth i.e. 24 GHz spectrum band. The spectrum analyser was used to collect the data of the outdoor urban environment of a typical rain region at a 24 GHz frequency band. The research findings shows that the distance between the transmitter and the receiver is extended by approximate 100m for a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) condition and the system parameter undergoing less multipath fading as compared to transmitting at high frequency.</p> <p>Keywords- 5G, 24GHz, path loss modelling, millimeter wave, coverage prediction, tropical region</p> Olaniran K Olawale, Ramoni Tirimisiyu Amosa, Tijani M.A, Olawoyin L.A. Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 09 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Early Jurassic Vegetational Analysis Based on Palynological: Data from Khisor Range, Pakistan. <p>The study has focused on palynological analysis regarding the early Jurassic rock sample that was retrieved from Datta Formation, Khisor Range Pakistan. The study represents initial report of palynological investigation form Khisor Range Pakistan. Samples contained medium to significantly well preserved palynoflora. Palynological data retrieved from this study was used to reconstruct the previous vegetation, climate and environment of deposition during early Jurassic in the Kishor Range Pakistan.Palynomorphs are recovered in good identifiable condition, and the sample included pollen and spores in yellowish brown, dark brown and reddish brown color. This represented different thermal maturity levels. Other obtained groups included Bisaccate pollen and Monolete spores, Monosaccate, pollen, Alete/Inaperturate &amp; Colpat/Sulcate pollen. Presence of Bisaccate pollen was lower than Trilete spores.A fluvial to shallow marine environment in Khisor Range, Pakistan included the Datta formation as represented by the discovery of Pteridophytic spores.</p> Arooj Sehar, Rashid Rasheed Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Analysis of the Increase in Prices of Masks and Handsanitizers at the Beginning of a Pandemic in the Perspective of Economic Law <p><em>The existence of the Covid-19 pandemic has harmed the education sector, the economy, and in particular on health. The health sector has to face many challenges, such as obstacles in handling patients infected with Sars Cov 2 in hospitals that lack beds, to the limited number of masks that make it soar. In the end, this has been exploited by irresponsible people to hoard masks and sell them at higher prices. This case is very detrimental to all parties, especially the people who need it. The study method used is descriptive qualitative research by reviewing the laws governing health as an answer to the government's efforts to intervene in entrepreneurs, create price balances in the market, to preventive policies such as conducting raids on hoarding masks. This aims to control the amount of production and market prices so that they can provide the community with maximum service, in this case, the fulfillment of basic logistics needs, especially masks to protect themselves.</em></p> <p><em>.</em></p> Patria Widianto Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Software Testing Methods, Tools and Techniques <p>In this progress report main testing methods and techniques are shortly described. The purpose of this paper is to offer visibility in to the software testing process using measurements. The focus of this thesis is at the possible measurements in the Software Test Plans, Methods and Techniques of the System for testing level using the Software Development Process. In this paper we conducted a literature study on all testing techniques together that are related to both Black and White box testing techniques. The overall aim of this literature study is to clearly explain different testing techniques along with a case situation and their advantages. The aims and objectives of the research work is to investigate testing methods and techniques for support provided to the test planning and test design activities for Concurrent Development Validation Testing Model, thereby, enabling the management to have better insight in to the software testing techniques. The scope of the research is restricted to the investigation for the role of software engineering in testing methods is formed software testing processes and techniques.</p> Dr. Mithelesh Parihar Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 01 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Institutional Child Care Homes: The Promises, Perspectives and Problems <p>Institutional child care homes provide shelter and support to children who are without family support. They have a long history and were initiated as philanthropic organisations. Over the years their number went on escalating and more and more children started getting accommodated in such institutional care homes. Children growing in institutional care homes fall into different categories on the basis of their separation or missing of family care. Different perspectives lie at the root of institutional care homes. Over the years these institutional care homes are increasing in number both at the global and the national level. But they have many times failed to stick to their promises. Multiple problems grapple them and obstruct their smooth functioning. Keeping all these in view, the present article has tried to analyse the institutional child care homes from the point of the promises they make, the perspectives that govern them and the problems encountered by them. All these are done from a global to the national perspective. The study has a special focus on the institutional care homes of India with its problems.</p> Mrs Annapurna Pattnaik, Prof. Navaneeta Rath Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500