International Journal of Research http://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr <div>International Journal of Research (IJR) with ISSN 2348-6848 (Online) and 2348-795X (Print) is an international peer reviewed, internationally refereed, online, open-access journal published monthly. International Journal of Research (IJR) represents a revolution in scholarly journal publishing platform. A pioneering effort in liberal, open access publishing with fast and high quality peer review that brings journal publishing to the doorstep of every researcher and student. We believe that quality information should be free and accessible universally in this day and age. The ideology of an open-access journal is in being free for all and IJR will be free for all to read and share.</div> <div>Send papers to <strong>ijr@ijrjournal.com</strong></div> <div><strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="homepageImage"><img src="https://journals.pen2print.org/public/journals/1/homepageImage_en_US.png" alt="Journal Homepage Image" width="158" height="106" /></div> <strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="additionalHomeContent"> <p>IJR takes special care to publish your research paper/article without any delay. Our journal aims to bring out the latent research talent and the professional work done by Scientists, Engineers, Architects, Planners, Practitioners, Administrators, Scholars, Graduate and Post Graduate students across all fields. This journal welcomes the submission of your research papers that meet our submission guidelines and the general criteria of significance and excellence in the field of Engineering, Science and Humanities. Submitted articles are peer reviewed by our panel of experts from various fields. All submitted papers are double-checked for plagiarized content. Please note that all submissions need to be previously unpublished.</p> </div> </div> Edupedia Publications Pvt Ltd en-US International Journal of Research 2348-795X STUDY ON IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON CHILDREN AND SENIOR CITIZENS http://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/63 <p>Over the past year, a global pandemic has affected common life. From people losing their lives to jobs to homes, mankind has learned to live and spent their everyday life inside their respective houses. The covid-19 pandemic also known as the coronavirus has mainly affected children and old age. Although medical literature shows that children and old age are minimally susceptible to 2019-Corona virus disease, they are hit the hardest by the psychological impact of this pandemic.&nbsp;Widespread lockdown and preventative measures have isolated individuals, affected the world economy, and limited access to physical and mental healthcare.&nbsp;While these measures may be necessary to minimize the spread of the virus, the negative physical, psychological, and social effects are evident. Being quarantined in homes and health centres may impose a greater psychological burden than the physical sufferings caused by the virus. School closure, lack of outdoor activity, strange dietary and sleeping habits are likely to upset children's usual lifestyle and can potentially promote monotony, anxiety, agitation, annoyance, and varied neuropsychiatric manifestations. Meanwhile, the senior citizens are affected by both the virus, and the lockdown measures have seen the least benefits from these digital solutions. The age-based digital divide describes a longstanding inequality in the access to, and skills to make use of, new technology.</p> Daewoo Jayaprakash Mahima M Pooja Prasad Kavya Hareesh Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 8 6 1 8 Ethnomedicinal uses of Polyherbal mixtures in the treatment of skin infections: A Review http://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/64 <p><em>There are numerous skin diseases and a frequently occurring health problem that affect all ages, from the neonates to the elderly, and in many ways cause harm. For a healthy body, maintenance of healthy skin is necessary. Many people can develop skin diseases, including cancer, herpes, and cellulites, which damage the skin. In order to treat these diseases, some wild plants and their sections are commonly used. The use of plants is as old as the history of mankind. Natural treatment is cheap and claimed to be safe. It is also suitable for raw material or production of new synthetic drugs. This work reviews &nbsp;polyherbal formulation as a traditional treatment for skin infections and other skin related diseases</em></p> Adaaja B.O Akemien N.N Odey B.O Oloyede E.O Adetola O.O 3Adekoya O.O Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 8 6 9 21 A Study on Digital Marketing and Its Impact http://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/65 <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong><strong><em>&nbsp;I</em></strong><em>ndia is quickest growing massive economy within the world, it still popularly called the country of villages. Digital promoting trade in India may be a booming career nowadays. During a country with a zoom economy, it's expected to possess a awfully high vital growth in Digital promoting career . </em><em>Digital marketing is the avenue of electronic communication which is used by the marketers to endorse the goods and the services towards the marketplace. The supreme purpose of the digital marketing is concerned with consumers and allows the customers to intermingle with the product by virtue of digital media. This editorial concentrates on the magnitude of digital promotion for both customers and marketers. We scrutinize the result of digital marketing on the base of firm’s sales. 100 respondents&nbsp; opinion are collected to get the clear picture about the present study.</em></p> BIJIL M VARGHESE MELVIN BIJI MAMMEN ROSHAN CHANDY VARGHESE Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 8 6 22 26 Afforestation: A Mitigation Strategy to Control Climate Change in Nigeria. http://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/66 <p><em>Climate change occurs when a situation in which a change in climate continues in one direction at a rapid rate and for an unusual long period of time. Several studies have shown </em><em>that afforestation in Nigeria could have both positive and negative future impacts on the climate change and extreme events in the country. While afforestation reduces the projected global warming and enhances rainfall over the afforested area (and over coastal zones), it enhances the warming and reduces the rainfall over the north-eastern part of the country. Afforestation has been implemented worldwide to address global environmental problems such as climate change. This review study considers some impacts afforestation have on climate change such as,reduction in soil biodiversity, desertification, temperature changes and the sequestration of carbon .</em></p> <p><em>Considering the positive impacts of afforestation, the study recommends that government of states should enforce the policy on afforestation as a mitigation measure against climate change.</em></p> Kolade R.I. Akanni O.F. Ugege B.H. Adisa A.S. Oyedokun C.A. Asunlegun O.A Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 8 6 27 36 A STUDY ON CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS ONLINE SHOPPING http://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/67 <p><em>Online shopping is the process of buying goods and services from merchants who sell on the Internet. Since the emergence of the World Wide Web, merchants have sought to sell their products to people who surf the Internet. Shoppers can visit web stores from the comfort of their homes and shop as they sit in front of the computer Now a day, online shopping has become popular among people, they have become techno savvy and feel very comfortable in using internet. So online shopping has becoming a trend hat is why it is necessary to make a study on online shopping usage and perception. The main aim of this research is to study the perception of the customers towards online shopping and also discriminate this perception gender wise. For this purpose, with help of convenient sampling method 150 respondents were selected and data were collected through structured questionnaire. On the basis of data analysis it is found that most of the customers were perceived that online shopping is better option than manual shopping and most of the customers were satisfied with their online shopping transactions. Customers are accessing their net at their home and office/ college. Largely customers are buying clothe, electronics items and accessories. Most alarming barrier for online shopping was customers have to give their credit card number and they can’t see products personally. Customers agree with the statement that online shopping is more expensive than manual shopping, its take more time to deliver the products and they are facing problems while making online purchases. </em></p> Sherin Santhosh Jacob Sijin Monachan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 8 6 37 47 The Mehrauli Mystery http://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/68 <p><em>The research work attempts to uncover the mystery behind the venerated Mehrauli Pillar in Delhi. When one looks at the pillar from the top, one may find an irregular hollow on the pedestal. The hollow arouses suspicion about an unknown article that once occupied the top of the pillar. The original article is irretrievably lost in time and remains an enigma to date. The paper uses various primary and secondary sources with the Gupta inscription on the column to identify the lost article. The study also considers the ancient sites of Eran and Udayagiri in present-day Madhya Pradesh. Gupta coins played a significant role to reconstruct the original article that crowned the Mehrauli pillar. If one were to describe the column in a word befitting its eloquence, an exotica, it would be. This paper analyses three possible articles that might’ve crowned the pillar following the conclusions made by various scholars. However, the original article atop the Mehrauli pillar remains a mystery.</em></p> Adwaith PB Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-02 2021-06-02 8 6 47 56 Requirement of Cloud Environment for Large Information Handling http://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/69 <p><em>The modern day advancement is increasingly digitizing our lives which have led to a rapid growth of data. Such multidimensional datasets are precious due to the potential of unearthing new knowledge and developing decision-making insights from them. Analyzing this huge amount of data from multiple sources can help organizations to plan for the future and anticipate changing market trends and customer requirements. While the Hadoop framework is a popular platform for processing larger datasets, there are a number of other computing infrastructures, available to use in various application domains. The primary focus of the study is how to classify major big data resource management systems in the context of cloud computing environment. We identify some key features which characterize big data frameworks as well as their associated challenges and issues. We use various evaluation metrics from different aspects to identify usage scenarios of these platforms. The study came up with some interesting findings which are in contradiction with the available literature on the Internet.</em></p> Bharat Batham Dr. Shailja Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-02 2021-06-02 8 6 57 63 Individualized Consideration and Idealized Influence Practices Adopted by Principals for Teachers’ Job Performance in Secondary Schools in Awka Education Zone http://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/70 <p><em>The study determined the individualized consideration and idealized influence practices adopted by principals for teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in Awka Education Zone, Anambra Stat e</em><em>. Two research questions guided the study and two null hypotheses were tested. The descriptive survey research design was employed for the study. </em><em>The population of the study comprised 1,772 respondents (61 principals and 1,711teachers) in the 61 state government owned public secondary schools in Awka Education Zone, Anambra State</em><em>. Stratified proportionate sampling technique</em><em> was used to draw 5</em><em>62 respondents (49 principals and </em><em>51 </em><em>teachers) as the sample for the study. </em><em>A researcher-developed questionnaire titled </em><em>‘‘</em><em>Individualized Consideration and Idealized Influence Practices</em><em> Questionnaire (ICIIPQ)’’</em><em> was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by three experts who were lecturers in the Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. The reliability of the instrument was ascertained using Cronbach Alpha which yielded an overall reliability of 0.73 for the instrument with coefficients for the clusters being </em><em>0.72 and 0.74</em><em>respectively.</em><em> T</em><em>he researchers together with four research assistants collected data for the study and a 96 percent return rate of the instrument administered was recorded. M</em><em>ean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while t-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed among others that </em><em>idealized influence practices were adopted by principals for teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in Awka Education Zone, Anambra State</em><em>.</em> <em>It was also found out that the difference in the mean scores of principals and teachers on the individualized consideration practices adopted by principals for teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in Awka Education Zone, Anambra State was not significant.</em> <em>Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that</em> <em>school principals should observe and interact with teachers to identify their unique personality that aid the application of individualized consideration practices in assigning tasks and responsibility to them. </em></p> Janefrances Onyeka Okafor Patience Ndidi Egboka Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-02 2021-06-02 8 6 64 74 Effects of Youth Unemployment in Malawi http://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/71 <p><em>Unemployment is a significant life event that has a devastating impact on people’s lives, affecting the unemployed person, family members, and the community. Unemployment has a long-lasting impact which is far-reaching, affecting lives up to retirement. It has an impact even on the next generation prospects. Loss of valuable productive resources to any country’s economy is also another impact of unemployment. Unemployment effects extend beyond individuals, families, communities, and neighborhoods. Scarcity and unemployment go hand in hand, and the characteristics of poor neighborhoods amplify the impact of unemployment. Local communities are damaged because people leave in search of work. This paper recommends improving policies and programs design for youth empowerment initiatives to accommodate essential issues.</em></p> Matilda Tumalike Matabwa Lawal Aliyu Umar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-03 2021-06-03 8 6 75 83 Design, Fabrication and Control of Drone Using Arduino Microcontroller http://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/72 <p><em>Quadcopters is an aerial vehicle operated to fly independently and is one of the representation of a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). They are controlled by pilots on the ground or simultaneously driven. They are called rotorcrafts because unlike a fixed wing aircraft, here lift is generated by a set of revolving narrow-chord aerofoils. Drones are actually very interesting and in this project we are going to study about them, their components and about its widespread applications that determine its scope for the future. They are the mixture of streams of Electronics, Mechanical and especially Aviation. Drones are of different types and have different configurations for example, bicopters, tricopters, quadcopters, hexacopters, octocopters, etc. They have different uses and accordingly different configurations are used. Hexacopters and Octocopters have better stability and yaw configuration. Control of motion of vehicle is achieved by altering the rotation rate of one or more rotors, thereby changing its torque load and thrust/lift characteristics. Quadcopters have different structures and design according to the work done by it. Components like motors, batteries and electronic speed controllers (ESC's) also vary according to the power needed and work done by quadcopter. Also the enhancements like GPS trackers or cameras or infrared cameras arc used so that they could be applied in various missions like disaster relief, search and rescue, agriculture and 3D mapping of the geography of an area. These widespread applications outshine the advantages which are rectifiable and hence this makes it a very productive technology in today's world. It is supposed to appear in </em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; full existence in the coming years. But every technology has merits as well as demerits.</em></p> Sanoj Kumar Karki Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-03 2021-06-03 8 6 84 95 Role of Corporate Finance Law in Corporations. http://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/73 <p><em>This paper has focused on the role of corporate finance law in corporations. Corporations, in Pakistan has been governed by the Companies Act, 2017, aims to maximize the profit by minimizing the risk, possesses a separate legal personality having rights and duties towards the outside world. As the word corpus means body; Companies enjoys separate legal personality from its shareholder, members and directors. British East India Company was the first business corporation that have earned profit for its members. A company is formed by due process of law and not otherwise. Company if is created by limited number of shareholders i.e two to fifty it is a private company and in other case it is a public company. A public company formulated by due process of law possesses separate corporate personality, the liability of its members is limited and also has many other distinct characteristics.</em></p> Afrasiab Ahmed Rana Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-03 2021-06-03 8 6 96 107 The Influence of Jihad on the Unification of the British-Northern Cameroons with the Federation of Nigeria: 1945-1945 http://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/74 <p><em>This article examines the Influence of Jihad during the first and second plebiscite, which was sponsored by the United Nations, under the British mandate for the part of the Northern section of former British-Cameroons, and of the former United Nations trust territory that was unified with the Federation of Nigeria, in 1961. This region, with its diversity in both ethnic and geographical compositions, was considered as a large whole because of the nature of its common historical root. The territory was quite remarkable with a unique historical occurrence. It was once a catalog of slaves for the Fulani and the Kanuri rulers of the trust territory, perhaps, except for the Kanuri Empire of Dikwa emirate. Similarly, it was a German Protectorate; later transformed into a League of Nations mandate; furthermore, hitherto metamorphosed, turn out to be a United Nations trust territory, before it was finally unified with Northern Nigeria and part of the Federation of Nigeria in 1961. We may infer that no part of Nigeria has experienced such a significant historical feel. More especially, the influence of 19<sup>th</sup>-century Jihad had a very serious repercussion on the unification process without which would have been rather difficult in a region where most of the people remained non-Muslims. Undoubtedly, before the plebiscite, almost all the rulers of the territory accepted Islam and continued to spread their new faith, the result of which forced the minority ethnic extraction to escape the jihad for fear of been involved in the jihad, or both thereby restricted themselves to the mountain-top. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</em></p> Adamu Sani Buba Amina Ramat Saidu Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-03 2021-06-03 8 6 108 153 The Statistical Bias in Genetic Model Analysis with Varying Model Parameters http://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/75 <p><em>This study was presented by considering models with or without interactions for large and small sample sizes. The paper, therefore seeks to analyze the relationships between heredity (response) and the predictors (age and sex) for large and small sample sizes and for model with interaction (full) or without interaction (reduced). Ordinary Least Square (OLS) was employed to analyze the data of heredity, age and sex of human beings obtained from Sameera (2014). Correlation was considered to obtain the degree of relationships among the variables. Grand Mean Absolute Deviation </em><em>(</em> <em>&nbsp;was proposed as a measure of the statistical bias that exists in the relationship between parents and the offspring in genetic studies. </em><em>It was observed that the grand mean of the model with interaction for small sample size is greater than the grand mean of the model without interaction for small sample size by 95.89%. The grand mean for model with interaction for large sample size was also greater than the grand mean of the model without interaction for large sample size, but with just percentage level of 26.61. The difference between the grand mean for model with interaction for small and large sample size was 8.51%, while that of model without interaction for small and large sample size was 94.87%. This shows that the model without interaction becomes stronger as the sample size increases, even more than the strength gained by model with interaction for increased sample sizes. The correlations between all the variables, heredity, age and sex are all positive, this reveals that, the relationships between parents and offspring in terms of genetic behavior is positive, irrespective of full or reduced models. It also shows that interaction of age and sex in genetic analysis of heredity is encouraged. Heredity and sex has the highest relationship than other pair for both models. The application of </em> <em>&nbsp;reveals that large sample size reduces the statistical bias in genetic model analysis, irrespective of whether full or reduced model used. Also, full model reduces the statistical bias in genetic model analysis, irrespective of the sample size. Hence, the proposed measure suggests that for bias to be reduced in genetic analysis, the sample size should be large and full model (with interaction) be used.</em></p> Obineke Henry Onu Daniel Sokari George Esther Chinyem Uzoamaka Blessing Okerengwu Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-04 2021-06-04 8 6 154 166 QUALITY ASSURANCE IN RADIOGRAPHY WITH EMPHASIS ON LIGHT FIELD X-RAY BEAM ALIGNMENT http://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/77 <p><em>Quality Assurance in Radiography with emphasis on light beam/X-ray beam alignment was carried out on X-ray machines of five different hospitals (coded: H1, H2, H3, H4 and&nbsp;&nbsp; H5) in Jos North Local government area of Plateau State, Nigeria. </em><em>This test was carried out using eight coins having known positions in the collimator light field, two light fields were considered of area 12.5 cm x 12.5 cm and&nbsp; 22.5 cm x 17.5 cm to represent smaller and larger image sizes respectively.</em><em> The total misalignment, the sum of the vertical and horizontal values were: 2.0, 2.4, 1.0, 3.0 and 1.8 cm for the 22.5 cm x 17.5 cm collimator light field size and 2.1, 2.3, 0.8,2.5 and 1.7 cm for&nbsp; 12.5 cm x 12.5 cm collimator light field size corresponding to H1, H2, H3, H4, and H5 respectively. All the X-ray machines of the five selected hospitals showed satisfactory compliance of X-ray beam / Light field congruency test. However, it was found that significant differences in total misalignment of collimation of the X-ray machines in H3 and H4 between the smaller and the larger image sizes and hence need for collimator adjustment. This shows that </em><em>the collimator light field is to allow simulation and visualization of the size, shape, and location of the X-ray field and it is important that the light field be approximately congruent to the X-ray field.</em></p> Bonaventure C. Alumona Margaret I. Ike-Ogbonna U.A.I. Sirisena Franklin D. Akpolile Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-04 2021-06-04 8 6 167 177 Platelet Rich Fibrin: The “Wonder Bio-Material” To Enhance Recession Coverage with Lateral Pedicle Flap http://ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/78 <p><em>Labial gingival recession in the anterior region has been one of the most important treatment challenges for periodontists owing to their varied etiology. Among the procedures for treatment of isolated gingival recessions, it is ideal to perform a pedicle flap procedure. Thus this case report combines the lateral pedicle flap with the use of Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF), an enriching bio-material for the treatment of isolated gingival recession. A 42 years old male patient </em><em>reported to the outpatient department of Krishnadevaraya College of Dental Sciences and Hospital. On examination, Millers class III isolated recession was observed in relation to 41. Surgical procedure involved placement of a vertical incision 3 mm away from the gingival margin from the distal line angle of the adjacent tooth and upto the base of the recipient site to elevate a full-split thickness flap laterally rotated flap. Platelet Rich Fibrin was prepared in situ according to Choukroun’s protocol and placed upon the defect prior to suturing for enhanced postoperative healing and was followed up for 1 month. Recession coverage obtained by this technique in the initial healing period showed that combining PRF with LPF was a promising alternative.</em></p> Pranesh Sundaresan Dr Rashmi Paramashivaiah Dr Prabhuji MLV Dr Cherukuri Aswani Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-04 2021-06-04 8 6 178 196